Lexical affixes

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Prefixes

These are all the known prefixes that change the class of a word as of February 2, 2010. None of these appear to change the position of the stress accent. These prefixes are not freely usable to coin new words from existing words (Canon), except nì-, which is freely usable on existing adjectives(citation needed).

  • nì- forms adverbs from nouns, adjectives and verbs, as in nìNa'vi Na'vily, in Na'vi (TO), nìftue easily from ftue easy, nìtam enough from tam suffice, be enough (ASG, Dictionary)
  • sä- forms a noun for the means through which an action takes place, as in säspxin disease from spxin sick (MND) and sänume teaching, instruction from nume learn (ASG). It may also form a noun which means a single instance of something, as in sätswayon flight and säpom kiss (Dictionary)
  • tì- forms nouns from adjectives and verbs, as in tìftia study (n.) from ftia study (v.) (SciMag), tìngay truth from ngay true (ASG, Dictionary)
    • tì- with a participle (a verb with the ‹us› infix) forms a gerund, koren a’awve tìruseyä ’awsiteng the first rule of living together (GMA).
  • le- forms adjectives from nouns, as in lehrrap dangerous from hrrap danger (ASG, Dictionary), leNa'vi Na'vi (adj.) from Na'vi Na'vi (n.) (ASG, Weaving Song)

Suffixes

  • -tu, short for tute person, is used to derive person nouns from parts of speech other than verbs (vs. -yu, which operates on verbs), as in reltseotu artist and pamtseotu musician from pamtseo music (Art-related vocabulary).
  • -yu creates an agent noun from a verb, as in taronyu hunter from taron hunt (ASG, Dictionary). It does not appear to alter the stress accent of a word.
  • -nga' creates an adjective from a noun which means containing that noun, as in txumnga' poisonous, containing poison (Dictionary) It does not a appear to alter stress accent.