L E P/The physical world

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Lexical Expansion Project

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moon (B)

other moons of Polythemus

Kent (Alpha Centauri B) (C)

more than a moon, not quite a sun. maybe hi`tsawk ?

planet (B)

other planets in the sky, assuming they're distinct from stars

Polyphemus (A)

perhaps < Cameron

phases of Polyphemus and moons (C)

eye of Polyphemus (C)

meteor, bolide, shooting star (C)

aurora (C)

rise (of a sun/planet), set (of a sun/planet) (A)

How is the rising of a sun or the planet called? *tawkä? Is kllkä also for suns/planets (or only for things falling onto the ground)? In English the sun sets, in French it goes to sleep, in Latin it falls down, in German and Japanese it sinks down ... How about Na'vi?

zenith, nadir (C)

horizon (B)


weather, climate (B)

The weather is no good for hunting today.
Chinese just uses the word for sky, 天, and Greek splits it between sky and the upper air (ἀήρ).

clear (of the sky) (A)

Could either describe the sky or the weather. A noun in some languages.

overcast, cloudy (A)

mist, vapor, fog, steam (B)

steam from cooking diff. from mist over forest?

cloud (B)

storm (A)

thunder, lightning (B)

might these be verbs?

breeze (C)


to blow (C)

of the wind, maybe also about animals?

to billow, flow outward (C)

of smoke, fog, etc.

month, week (B)

Is there something alike?

season (A)

which are the seasons? winter/spring/summer/fall? dry/dust/rain/monsoon? Kent-illuminated night/dark nights?

shadow, shade (A)

Is that a great leonopterix shadow I see?
Let's rest in the shade of this tree.

rainbow (B)

or similar optical effects caused by the diffraction of light in the atmosphere; common in human speech and of significance in romance and poetry

Morgenrot/Abendrot (B)

the orange-red hue of the sky at sunset and sunrise (German: Morgenrot = morning red; Abendrot = evening red); Although the "day" and "night" patterns on Pandora are different from Earth, the physics are again the same and therefore these phenomena should occur on Pandora.

flood (C)

It rained so much yesterday that a flood washed away our camp.

snow (C)

Pandora has mountains and poles — surely there's snow.

upwind, downwind (C)

Stay downwind of yerik while you hunt them. They have good noses.
Useful for hunters and ikran riders. The same pair of words might also work very well for upstream and downstream, where the flow direction matters more than the medium.

lee (C)

Stay in the lee of the head rider.
Again, important for ikran riders. The downwind side or area of something that is protected from the wind (such as among the Hallelujah Mountains). "Leeward" or "the leeward side" might be good candidates, too, instead of just "lee."

thermal, updraft (C)

Then my ikran caught a thermal and we rose very high, very quickly.


cave (n) (C)

soil (n.) (B)

Plants will not grow in this soil.

spring, source (B)

The water from the spring was very cold.

waterfall, cascade (C)

might these be verbs?

river/lake/sea bed (C)

coast, bank (steep/grassy), shore, beach (sandy/gravel) (B)

deep (A)

shallow (A)

marsh, swamp (B)

sink, drainage (C)

opposite of a spring, as in karst terrain

volcano (C)

explosion (C)

lava (C)

crystal (C)

We often find crystals near this mountain.
quartz and the like

gas (C)

erupting during volcanic events; although the word "gas" itself is a really unique concept and propably not known to the Na'vi

to spew (C)

'The volcano spewed forth smoke and lava'

earthquake (C)

seismic fault (C)

fumes (C)

of volcano

types and nature of fire and flames (A)

raging inferno, steady flame, smoldering coals or embers, sparks, popping sounds etc.

ash (B)

of volcano != of a fire?

plains, prairie (B)

is tei from the game correct? (sg. txei?)

desert (B)

Maybe (also) a metaphoric term for a realm not (any longer) in contact with life/Eywa. Like - in some ways - "hell" to a Christian is the absense of love/God. Maybe what the humans are doing with their bulldozers and diggers is turning the land into this kind of "desert" (= destroying nature/life/Eywa).

sand, sand dune (C)

hill, mountain, peak (A)

gravel (C)

grain (C)

grains of sand, grains of any solid matter

sand bar, reef (C)

mud flat (C)

mud, dirt (B)

valley (B)

meander (C)

of a river, floating mountains

arch (A)

incl. rock arches near mag. pole

Unobtanium (B)

there is likely a Na'vi-name for this type of material

arc (C)

If you were to crush a piece of natural unobtanium that had developed a superconducting current flow in it, there would be arcs and sparks when it broke up, due to disruption of the massive electric current flowing in it.

magnet (C)

This would refer to a stone or mineral that sticks to another stone or mineral (or metal, but it doesn't look like the Na`vi have much in the way of metallurgy yet), or levitates in some circumstances.

steep (B)

slope, mild grade, rolling terrain (C)

burrow (n. or v.) (C)

The animal burrowed into the ground.
We hid from the thanator in a burrow.
Might be derived from simple "dig". [4]

island (B)

peninsula (C)

a land mass that is surrounded by water on three sides

plateau, tableland, upland, mesa (C)

raised up land compared to its surrounding land that is relatively flat on the top

basin, depression (C)

a depression in the Earth's surface partially or wholly surrounded by higher ground

bluff (C)

a cliff, headland, or hill with a broad, steep face


drop (n and v) (B)

Little drops (of water or another fluid) were sparkling in the sunlight.
The water slowly drops from one leaf to the next one.

wave, surf (C)

a/to splash (C)

effect of rain or rock dropped in water

dew (C)

float (B)

different words for cloud in the sky, floating mountains, leaf on water? (e. g. in German the rocks are "schweben" (= levitate), while the leaf on water is "schwimmen" (= swim, like fishes do). rock in air = fish in water?

swim (A)

on surface vs. under water : or is this just "fly in water"? (does the verb change per the medium? is swim on water same verb as run on land?)

dive (B)

same as 'to duck'? cf. swoop when in the air like toruk vs. dive like sea otter when swimming on surface vs. plunge from air into the water like skua; maybe a fish "dives"?

ice (C)

erode, wash away (C)

The rapid stream eroded away our camping site.

Et Cetera

wax, waterproofing (C)

sealing wax, candle wax, ear wax, ect. (any biology likely to have it, but not all the same concept?)

oil, tar (C)

geometrical shapes (A)

circle, square, triangle, sphere, box etc.; line, row
which shapes do the Na'vi have no name for? or that the Na'vi have names for, but we don't?

symmetric, symmetry (C)

bulge (B)

protruding part

dent (B)

small depression in object

chain (B)

many similar objects connected

sprawling (C)

spreading like roots of a tree on the ground or the petals of a flower

hole (A)

distinction between one that goes all the way through and one that has a bottom

echo (C)

echo of a crack or a shout (usually larger distances)

curved (B)

a curved dagger

slippery (B)

about a surface

current, flow (n) (B)

The current was strong, and washed away the bridge.

point (n.), tip (A)

the end of something sharp
Greek ἀκμή covers this, and the tops of mountains, as well as the highest or furthest reach of anything.

base, foundation (B)

Wait at the base of the mountain.
Metaphorical extensions?

noise (A)

unexpected/unpleasant/nondescript sound

rustle (v.) (B)

the arrow will rustle when you drop it
the leaves rustled in the wind

various sounds (B)

hum, click, thud, crackle, clatter, whoosh, sputter, crunch, thump, pop
onomatopoeic like kxangangang?

end, terminal point (A)

The end of the rope.
We reached the end of the path.
Distinguish from: tì'i'a, the conclusion of something. Klingon has two words ({megh'an} and {'e'rIn}) that on their own can refer to either end, but once a {megh'an} is selected, the other end becomes the {'e'rIn} and vice versa.

wide, broad (A)

The ravine is wide.
The titanothere has a wide head.

narrow (A)

The way is narrow.

network (n) (C)

A word that describes connection between plants on Pandora that forms the being Eywa.

energy (A)

According to Neytiri energy drives all beings and "all energy is only borrowed" ... What did she say to name "energy"?

wood, wooden (A)

The wood of this tree.
A wooden tool.

melt (C)

The ice never melts up here.
Can refer to fats, too, in some languages (tasty yerik tallow!).

substance, stuff, matter/material (C)

This stuff's no good for weaving.
The sky people make their clothing from strange stuff.

be reflected, reflect (C)

The moons are reflected in the lake tonight.
Your eyes reflect the fire.

fragmefact, evidential piece of a former whole, leftover, a lost or missing part, forensic evidence (C)

In the charred remains of the decimated village he found 2 and a half dowels sticking out of a wooden disk wrapped in lichen-died yarn. The fragmefact went into his pocket with a thin prayer that it had come from his grandmother's loom.

Eywanian Energy, the light of tsaheylu, tendril light of the transmogrification (C)

As Tsahìk swayed and chanted the Eywanian energy pulsed through every living thing near the Tree of Souls.
  • nawmatan? *ngrratan?

Eywanian Matter (C)

As the energy we borrow in life returns to Eywa, so does the Eywanian matter of our flesh and bone.
the fundamental substance (as opposed to the energy) of which physical things are composed; *nawma (dust)?