L E P/The body

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Lexical Expansion Project

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Body in general

body (tokx) (B)

Does "tokx" only refer to body in the anatomical sense (body of an animal/Na'vi/...) or is it a generic term for any space-filling objects (physical sense of "body"). Or are there different terms used for these concepts - as originally in German "Leib" (anat.) vs. "Körper" (phys.) - although nowadays "Leib" is mostly replaced by "Körper", it still exists in certain cases, e. g. it's Unterleib (lower body), not *Unterkörper.

itch (v) (B)

scratch (v) (B)

wrinkle (B)

lie down (B)

Jake lies down on the ground.

recline (B)

Jake reclined near the camp-fire.

stand up (B)

Stand up when the Tsahìk is around!
If different from kllkxem.

exhausted (C)

A separate word (or idiom) than ngeyn for extreme weariness?

go to bed, go to sleep, fall asleep (A)

wake up, get up (A)

Both transitive and intransitive senses.

balance (B)

the ability of a person to remain on their feet
Seems like a common word for the Na'vi given their precarious lifestyle.

adult, mature (B)

also conceptually

delicate, slight (C)

of constitution

disconnect, break tsaheylu (C)

Jake, you get off that pa'li, break the bond and get over here!
Whatever verb describes breaking the connection.


stick the tongue out (B)

lick (v) (A)

taste (vtr) (A)

bite (A)

snarl (B)

show one's teeth - Neytiri does this when she saves Jake from the aynantang

hiss (A)

Neytiri does this

growl (A)

Tsu'tey does this

kiss (pom) (B)

is this french kiss too or only kiss on the cheeks? – these are two separate words in Hungarian

the saliva, salivate, spit (B)

sigh (v), sigh (n) (B)

vomit (C)

yawn (C)

nostrils, gills (C)

Are the shark-gill-like nostrils of a direwolf given the same name as Na'vi nostrils? As fish gills? What of fa'li?

sniff (A)

smell the air, ground etc.

sneeze, snot (n) (C)

forehead (C)

cheek (C)

eyelid (C)

close the eyes (B)

I know we have close, but this might be different, e.g. lehunyja (Hungarian verb for "close the eyes" not used about the closing of other things).

blink (v) (B)

Maybe also "a blink" as a unit of time?

stare (v) (B)

be dazzled (B)

by bright light

the 'fire' in the eyes (C)

as a sign of emotion or passion - anger, lust, playfulness, etc.

tear(s) (C)

part of the head which doesn't belong to the face (C)

cock the ear (B)

turn it in the direction of a sound

lay back the ears (B)

to protect them, as a sign of aggression – the Na’vi do this a lot in the movie


neck (B)

Is there just one word for the body-part between the head and the shoulders, or is it different at a whole and at the back-side - like "Hals" (neck) and "Nacken" (nape of the neck) in German?

throat (n) (A)

swallow (A)

cough (v), cough (n) (C)

hang one's head (B)

e. g. in shame

Upper body

shoulder (B)

upper body (B)

Does "upper body" include the head (as e. g. Japanese "jôhanshin" - lit. upper half of body) or is it just the body-part between head and lower body (as e. g. German "Oberkörper" - lit. upper-body)?

breast (B)

Is it called the same in male Na'vi and in female Na'vi? Is there a special term for the protruding parts of the female breast, or is there just one term "breast" to describe both, the body-part between shoulder and stomach *and* the 'boobs'?

nipple (B)

In Hungarian it's "breastbud" - maybe in Na'vi too?

areola (C)

Maybe there are different verbs: to breath deliberately and automatically?

a borborygmus (C)

the sound the stomach makes when you're hungry

belch (C)

navel (C)

the back (dorsal part of the upper-body) (C)

side (lateral part of upper-body) (C)

spine (visible/touchable vertical line on the back) (C)

breath, breathe (C)

Lower Body

lower body (A)

Does "lower body" include the legs and feet (as e. g. Japanese "kahanshin" - lit. lower half of body) or is it just the body-part between stomach and legs (as e. g. German "Unterleib" - lit. lower-body)?

hip (C)

waist (B)

buttocks (B)

Are there different terms for the body-part itself and the two half-moon-parts, like German "Hintern"/"Gesäß" (= the body part as a whole) and "Backe" (= one of the two bulgings)?

sit (A)

Jake is sitting on a rock / dire-horse.

defecate, urine, urinate, scat, feces (C)

Generic term and/or separated to urine and scat.

fart (v) (C)

anus (C)

private parts (B)

At least a generic term would be helpful. Maybe different in males and females?


upper arm vs forearm, upper leg (thigh) vs lower leg (C)

kneel (B)

wrist, ankle (C)

palm (of hand), sole (of foot) (C)

finger (zekwä) (C)

What are the names for the four fingers of the Na'vi-hand? When Jake is brought in, does a kid say something about him having four fingers? Does this mean the thumb is not a "zekwä", like partially in English, where the thumb often is seen in contrast to the fingers ("the tumb and the fingers"), while e. g. in German the "Daumen" (thumb) is always seen as a finger too, so the only correct way is: "the thumb and the other fingers".

fist (C)

nails (of fingers and toes) (B)

Is it the same word as claw?


bone, skeleton (A)

Are there basic terms for the various bones like 'skull'/'head bone', 'spine', 'chest-bones'/rip-cage?

break (bones) (A)

the arm, leg, or skull – like in English this might be the same as break a thing

be sore (B)

after a workout – in Hungarian you call it izomláz (= muscle fever)

intestines, entrails (C)

Maybe as a generic term for more or less all inner organs.

liver (C)

kidney (C)

bladder (C)

Maybe as a generic term for more or less all inner organs.

race (of the heart) (C)

beat very fast, because of tension, excitement, fear etc.

a single heartbeat (C)

Maybe a time-unit?

muscle (C)

Is it - maybe - the same term like "flesh"?

stretch (v) (B)

when you wake up

rub, massage (B)

non-professionally, when something hurts or is stiff

tendon, sinew (C)

Are there separate words in body and used as binding or bowstring? What's the word for "bowstring"?

vessels (C)

At least a generic term for all blood-vessels (veins, arteries). Are "nerves" seen as "vessels" too (like they were e. g. in the medicine of ancient/medieval Europe), or do the Na'vi tell them apart from liquid-filled "vessels"?

fat, grease, oil (B)

Yerik fat is tasty.
Some languages distinguish lipids by their source, rather than consistency.

lungs (C)

hold one's breath (B)

under water

suffocate, drown, asphyxiate, choke (B)

though these are separate words in English, some languages use one word for them)

Disease and alike

pus (C)

Either infected wound or boil or both?

pimple, boil (n), zit (C)

wart, mole (C)

injury, wound (B)

infect (B)

to make sick with something that causes disease

scar (B)

Col. Quaritch has a big scar.

recover (from a disease) (B)

Since Grace's wound was too severe, she couldn't recover. (In German that's a reflexive verb "sich erholen")

cure (v) (C)

Mo'at cures the wounded hunter.

cure, drug, remedy (C)

It's likely that the Na'vi use e. g. herbs or alike to cure diseases or wounds. What's their generic term for this helpful stuff?

heal (v intr.) (A)

The wound healed quickly.

deaf (C)

disability (C)

unable to smell, taste, make a bond

bleed (C)

afflict, cause to suffer (C)

A fever was afflicting her.
He suffered a broken leg. Inverted for idiomatic English.
In Greek the same verb can cover everything from old age to diseases.

contract, come down with, catch (an illness) (C)

I think my ikran has come down with a cold.

plague, epidemic (C)

We must not go to that village now! There is a plague there.

germ (C)

infectious particle, malicious/dangerous spore

だるい (darui) (C)

lethargic, low energy, out of alignment, feeling crappy, Thai mai-sabaai

dizziness, vertigo (C)

I'm feeling dizzy — let me sit down a minute.

hallucination, confused vision, dream that is completely out of whack, temporarily crazy (C)

As soon as the insect stung him he began to hallucinate, and not in a good way.

faint, suddenly lose consciousness, have "the vapors", 倒れる (C)

It must have been the heat that caused him to faint so unexpectedly. Fortunately, he was back in a few seconds.

Na'vi specials

queue (A)

Are the paired animal queues the same word as Na'vi queues?

wag one's tail (B)

to move it around, not necessarily like a dog

tendrils (of the queue) (B)

The tendrils at the end of the queue (on the Na'vi) and on the antennae of the ioang that bond during tsaheylu.

body stripe (B)

a word for an individual stripe/blue color variation

facial stripe (B)

a word for an individual strip on the face as opposed to the body/blue color variation

facial striping pattern (B)

not just the name of the individual stripes, but something like the equivalent of a human "fingerprint" (the unique pattern of the face that belongs to each individual

bioluminescent stripe (B)

as opposed to the dots of light/tanhì (tankilvan?)


milk (B)

The Na'vi would appear to be mammals.

lactate, nurse (v), suckle (C)

be pregnant (B)

bear, give birth (B)

Do the Na'vi give birth? Or are they laying eggs or alike?

beget, sire (C)

sperm, semen (C)

egg (C)

fetus, unborn child (C)

fertile (C)

This pa'li isn't able to bear young any more.
This word tends to cover a lot of semantic range in many Human languages, or may be highly specialized among herding cultures. Include plants? The land itself?

be in labor, go into labor (C)

She went into labor at the most awkward time.