Vocabulary

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The Na’vi language has 20 consonants, 7 vowels, 4 diphthongs, and 2 syllabic pseudovowels, rr and ll (LL). Since Na’vi isn't a written language, it is transcribed using the Latin letters. In order to make the usage of this vocabulary easier to most people, the letters are arranged here in a sequence, which mostly follows the original Latin alphabet. The letters for "special" sounds are positioned according to their resemblance to "normal" sounds. Thus the letter sequence used here is:

’ (apostrophe) . A . AW . AY . Ä . E . EW . EY . F . H . I . Ì . K . KX . L . LL . M . N . NG (= G) . O . P . PX . R . RR . S . T . TX . TS (= C) . U . V . W . Y . Z

The vocabulary includes 1. the Na’vi word (in bold letters), 2. the IPA transcription (in square brackets), 3. the part of speech (in italic letters and round brackets), 4. the English equivalent(s) and additional information, 5. sourced example(s) after the symbol ?.

Example:


kame [?ka.m?] (Vtr) see (spiritual sense), acknowledge. ? Oel ngati kameie "I See you" (UGO).


ad 1. Compound verbs have a raised dot separating the compound elements. This is necessary because the verb infixes go into the final element of the compound only. For example, the proximate future of yom·tìng is not *yìyomtìng but is yomtìyìng.

ad 2. Purple colour is used to indicate stressed syllables in words, where the stress is officially recognized. In Frommer's own documents an underline is used to indicate stress, but on web pages this underline often causes confusion with certain letters.

ad 3. The IPA transcription includes dots (.) to indicate syllable breaks. If there aren't any dots between syllables, the syllable breaks are dubious.

ad 4. The abbreviations for the parts of speech are as follows:

Adj adjective
Adp+ adposition causing lenitation
Adp– adposition not causing lenitation
Adv adverb
Inf 1 first-position verbal infix
Inf pre-1 "pre-first" verbal infix (Frommer's term for infixes that come before tense and aspect infixes)
Inf 2 second-position verbal infix
Idiom idiomatic expression (e. g. interjections, fixed phrases, locutions)
Conj conjunction
M+ marker causing lenitation
M– marker not causing lenitation
N noun
NP proper noun (names of people, places etc.)
Num numeral
Part particle
Pron pronoun
Q question word
Vin intransitive verb
Vtr transitive verb


’ (Apostrophe) [?]

’a’aw [??a.?aw] (Adj) several, a few. ? "used only with countable nouns (people, plants, rocks, days, ideas, . . . ), not with uncountables (water, air, time, patience, anger, . . . )"; "used with the singular of the noun".

’akra [??ak.?a] (N) soil (in which plants can grow).

’aku [??a.ku] (Vtr) remove, take away, take off. ? Rutxe mehawnvenit ’ivaku "Please take off your shoes". Usage not restricted to clothing: Pot ’aku fìtsengta! "Get him out of here!" (Na'viteri 2011-8-3).

’ali’ä [?a.?li.?æ] (N) collar/choker. ? (Na'viteri 2011-8-3).

’ampi [??am.pi] (Vtr) touch.

’ana ['?a.na] (N) hanging vine. ? (Na'viteri 2012-1-22)

’ango [??a.?o] (Adj) soft (of a sound).

’are [??a.??] (N) poncho, cape, shawl. ? (Na'viteri 2011-8-3).

’aw [?aw] (Num) one. ? ’awa tìpawm(ìri) [one question] (Numerals).

’awkx [?awk?] (N) cliff.

’awlie [?aw.?li.?] (Adv) once (in the past). ? (EDM).

’awlo [??aw.lo] (Adv) once (? alo).

’awm [?awm] (N) camp.

’awnìm [??aw.n?m] (Vtr) avoid. ? From ’ì’awm "remain" + alìm "at a distance". Ngal ’erawnìm oeti srak? "Are you avoiding me?" (Na'viteri 2011-9-24).

’awpo [??aw.po] (Pron) one (individual/person) (pat.: ’awpot). ? ha ftxey awpot [< ’awpot?] ayngal "so choose one" (ASG, Hunt Song).

’awsiteng [?aw.si.?t??] (Adv) together. ? zene oe ’awsiteng tìkangkem sivi fohu … "I must work together with those …" (AMFP).

’awstengyem [?aw.st??.?j?m] (Vtr) join (two things together).

’awve [??aw.v?] (Adj) first. ? (Ordinal number); koren a’awve tìruseyä ’awsiteng "the first rule of living together" (GMA).

’ä’ [?æ?] (Idiom) whoops! ? ’Ä’! Oel tsngalit tìmungzup. Ngaytxoa! "Whoops! I just dropped the cup. Sorry about that!" (Na'viteri 2011-9-24).

’änsyem [?æn.?sj?m] (Adj) complete.

’ärìp [??æ.??p] (Vtr) move (something).

’e’al [???.?al] (Adj) worst (? swey).

’efu [???.fu] (Vtr) feel, sense, perceive. ? Lì’fyari leNa’vi oel ’efu ayngeyä tìyawnit "I feel your love for the Na’vi language" (AMFP).

’efu ohakx [???.fu o.?hak?] (Vin) be hungry. ? (EDM).

’eko [???.ko] (Vtr) attack.  ? Can be used to describe severe precipitation, fìrewon tompameyp zarmup, slä set ’ìmeko nìtxan nang "it was drizzling this morning, but it’s really started coming down now!" (Na'viteri 2011-4-1).

’ekong [???.ko?] (N) beat (rhythmic, e. g. heartbeat). ? ’ekong te’lanä "the beat of the hearts" (ASG, Weaving Song).

’ekxin [??.'k?in] (Adj) tight. (Na'viteri 2012-7-5)

’ekxinum [??.'k?i.num] (N) tightness/looseness. (Na'viteri 2012-7-5)

’ekxinumpe [??.'k?i.num.p?] (Q) how tight/loose?; ? pekxinum. (Na'viteri 2012-7-5)

’em [??m] (Vtr) cook.

’emyu [???m.ju] (N) cook. ? Naviteri.

’en [??n] (N) guess, hunch intuition.  ? Naviteri.

’en si [??n si] (Vin) make an (informed) guess.  ? ’en si oe, Sawtuteol tìlmok fìtsengit "I guess some Skypeople were just here" (Naviteri).

’engeng [????.??] (Adj) level.

’eoio [???.o.i.o] (Adj) ceremonious.

’etnaw [???t.naw] (N) shoulder.

’evan [???.van] (N) boy (colloquial).

’eve [???.v?] (N) girl (colloquial).

’eveng [???.v??] (N) child (dual: meveng; trial: pxeveng; plural: [ay]eveng). ? kifkeyit Eywa’evengä zamolunge awngar "[they] have brought us the world of Pandora [= child of Eywa]" (AMFP).

’evengan [???.v?.?an] (N) boy.

’evenge [???.v?.??] (N) girl.

’evi [???.vi] (N) kid (affectionate form of "child").

’ewan [???.wan] (Adj) young. ? aylì’ufa awngeyä ’eylanä a’ewan Markusì "in the words of our young friend Markus" (AMFP).

’ewll [???.wl??] (N) plant.

’eylan [???j.lan] (N) friend (short plural: eylan). ? ayeylanur oeyä sì eylanur lì’fyayä leNa’vi "to my friends and friends of the Na’vi language"; ’eylan ayngeyä, Pawl "your friend, Paul" (AMFP).

’eyng [??j?] (V) answer, respond. ? ’Awa tìpawmìri ’iveyng oe set; aylari zusawkrr ’ayeyng. [Let me answer one of the questions now; the others I will answer in the future.] (Numerals).

’eyt [??jt] (Num) eight, 8 (only as decimal figure). ? (TH).

’i’a [??i.?a] (Vin) end, conclude.

’ia [??i.a] (Vin) lose oneself (spiritual sense).

’ipu ['?i.pu] (Adj) humorous, funny, amusing. ? Kawkrr ke lu peyä ayvur ’ipu kaw’it. "His stories are never a bit amusing." (Na'viteri 2012-1-9)

’it [?it] (N) bit, small amount.

’itan [??i.tan] (N) son.

’ite [??i.t?] (N) daughter.

’ì’awn [??.??awn] (Vin) remain, stay.

’ìheyu [??.?h?.ju] (N) spiral. ? ’ìheyu sìreyä "the spiral of the lives" (ASG, Weaving Song).

’ìn [??n] (Vin) be busy, be occupied.  ? ’ìn nga fyape nìfkrr "what's been keeping you busy lately?" (Naviteri).

’Ìnglìsì [????.l?.s?] (N) English language.

’ìp [??p] (Vin) disappear, vanish, recede from view. ? Kxamtrr lam fwa sanhì a mì saw ’olìp nìwotx slä tsakrr ke tsun fko sat tsive’a nì’aw. "t mid-day it seems that the stars in the sky have all vanished but they just can’t be seen then" (Na'viteri 2012-3-28)

’llngo ['?l??.?o] (N) hip. ? In words that begin with ’ll or ’rr, there’s no lenition: the glottal stop never drops. So we have me’llngo ‘two hips,’ ay’llngo ‘hips,’ mì ’llngo ‘in the hip’. (Na'viteri 2012-3-28)

’o’ [?o?] (Adj) fun, exciting.  ? ayuvan letokx ’o’ lu nìtxan "sports are great fun" (Naviteri).

’ok [?ok] (N) memory, remembrance.

’okrol [?ok.??ol] (N) history (ancient).

’okvur [?ok.?vu?] (N) history (non-ancient).

’om [?om] (Adj) violet to purple to magenta (Naviteri).

’ompin [??om.pin] (N) the color ’om.

’ong [?o?] (V) unfold, blossom. ? ’Ivong *Na’vi! "Let *Na’vi bloom!" (AMFP); lì’fyari leNa’vi ’Rrtamì, vay set ’almong a fra’u "everything that has gone on with (blossomed regarding) Na’vi until now" (GMA).

’ongokx [??o.?ok?] (Vin) be born. ? oe ’olongokx mì sray a txampayìri sim "I was born in a town near the ocean" (Naviteri).

’opin [??o.pin] (N) color.

’ora [??o.?a] (N) lake.

’rrpxom ['????.p?om] (N) thunder. (Na'viteri 2012-7-5)

’Rrta [??r??.ta] (NP) Earth. ? ’Rrtamì "on Earth" (GMA).

’u [?u] (N) thing (plural: ayu).

’ul [?ul] (Vin) increase. (Na'viteri 2012-2-29)

’ul . . . ’ul [?ul . . . ?ul] (Idiom) the more . . . the more. ? ’Ul tskxekeng si, ’ul fnan. "The more you practice, the better you’ll get." ’Ul tute, ’ul tìngäzìk. "The more people, the more problems." (Na'viteri 2012-2-29)

’upe [??u.p?] (Q) what (thing) (alternative form: peu). ? X nìNa’vi slu ’upe? (or) X nìNa’vi slu peu? "How do you say X in Na’vi?" [lit.: In Na’vi X becomes what?] ([1] Jan 21).

’upxare [?u.?p?a.??] (N) message. ? fpole’ ayngal oer a ’upxaret stolawm oel "I have heard the message you have sent me" (AMFP).

A [a]

a [a] (M–) to subordinate an attributive sentence to a noun ('relative clause'); the a is always placed between the noun and its attribute. ? ha ftxey awpot [< ’awpot] ayngal a lu ayngakip "so choose one [who is] among you" (ASG, Hunt Song); Fpole’ ayngal oer a ’upxaret "[I have heard] the message [which] you have sent me" (AMFP); ke rey a tute "person who doesn't live / isn't alive" ([2]).

-a | a- [a] (M–) to attribute an adjective or participle to a noun; the a is attached to the adjective, but always faces the noun. ? ngima kilvan (or) kilvan angim "long river", fahew akewong "alien smell" (LL); sìltsana fmawn "good news" (AMFP); Palulukan atusaron lu lehrrap "A hunting thanator is dangerous" ([3]); If the a is attached to an adjective beginning or ending with an "a", one of the "a"s is deleted: skxawng apxa [< a-apxa], apxa [apxa-a] skxawng ([4]).

a fì’u [a f?.??u] (Conj) to nominalize a subordinate clause ("the fact, that …"). ? Tsun oe ngahu nìNa’vi pivängkxo a fì’u oeru prrte’ lu "It’s a pleasure to be able to chat with you in Na’vi" [= The fact, that I am able …, is a pleasure to me] (TO); Ngal oeyä ’upxaret aysuteru fpole’ a fì’uri, ngaru irayo seiyi oe nìtxan! [Concerning the fact, that you sent my message to the people, I thank you very much!], alternatively one can use furia: Furia ngal … fpole’, ngaru … ([5] Jan 20).

a krr [a kr??] (Conj) when (to conclude a clause of time; when … then – a krr … tsakrr). ? krra ? Tì’eyngit oel tolel a krr, … (tsakrr …) "When I receive an answer, … (then …)" (AMFP); Ngeyä Tireaioang zola’u a krr, law layu ngaru "When your Spirit Animal comes, you will know" (Krr).

akrrta [a.?kr??.ta] (Conj) since. ? ’Eveng lamu akrrta aylì’fya yawne leru oer "I've loved languages since I was a child" (Naviteri).

akum [a.'kum] (Conj) that (as a result); ? kuma. ? Poe yawne slolu oer akum, nìftxan lu sevin. "She was so beautiful that I fell in love with her." (Na'viteri 2012-6-19)

alaksi [a.?lak.si] (Adj) ready.

alìm [a.?l?m] (Adv) far away, at a distance. ? ’ì’awn alìm "stay back!" (Near, Distant and Irregular Adverbs).

alo [a.?lo] (N) time, turn, instance.  ? alo amrr poan polawm, slä fralo* poe poltxe san kehe "He asked five times, but each time she said, 'no.'" Ayupxareri angim nìhawng lu alo oeyä! "now it's my turn for a message that's too long!" (TH).

alu [?a.lu] (Conj) that is, in other words; used for apposition.

alunta [a.?lun.ta] (Conj) because. ? (Extracts from various emails).

‹am› [a.m] (Inf 1) to indicate past tense ‹pst›. ? ke pamähängem kea tì’eyng "no answer has arrived" (AMFP).

am'a [am.??a] (N) doubt.

am’ake [am.'?a.k?] (Adj) sure, confident. ? Tsaria pol awngati ke txayìng oe ’efu am’ake nìwotx. "I’m entirely confident that he won’t abandon us." (Na'viteri 2012-6-19)

am’aluke [am.'?a.lu.k?] (Adv) without a doubt. ? represents the speaker’s feeling about what he or she is saying. Am’aluke snayaytx Sawtute, yayora’ Na’vi. "Without a doubt the Sky People will lose and the People will win." (Na'viteri 2012-6-19)

apxa [a.?p?a] (Adj) large.

‹arm› [a?.m] (Inf 1) to indicate both, past tense and imperfective aspect ‹pst.ipfv›. ? "<arm> is <a<er>m> pst.ipfv" ([6] Dec 28); oe harmahängaw [I fell asleep] ([7] Jan 27).

asim [a.?sim] (Adv) nearby, at close range.

atan [a.?tan] (N) light. ? (atan is "source of illumination").

atanvi [a.?tan.vi] (N) ray (of light).

atanzaw [a.'tan.zaw] (N) forked lightning. ? (derived from atan 'light' and swizaw 'arrow'). (Na'viteri 2012-7-5)

atokirina’ [atoki.??i.na?] (N) atokirina, seeds of the great tree.

atxkxe [at?.?k??] (N) land.

‹ats› [a.?] (Inf 2) to indicate evidential: uncertainty or indirect knowledge ‹evid›. ? Fpìrmìl oel futa aynga natsew tsive’a fì’ut. [I was just thinking that you might want to see this], can also be used in combination with kxawm (perhaps) for reinforcement ([8]).

au [?a.u] (N) drum (made of skin).

aungia [a.?u.?i.a] (N) sign, omen.

AW [aw]

‹awn› [aw.n] (Inf pre-1) to make a passive participle.

awnga, awngal, awngeyä, awngar(u) ? ayoeng.

AY [aj]

ay+ [aj] (M+) plural prefix. ? aysokx "bodies" (LL); ayzìsìt "years" (ASG, Weaving Song); ayoe "we" (ASG, Hunt Song); ayeylanur oeyä "to my friends" (AMFP).

‹ay› [a.j] (Inf 1) to indicate future tense ‹fut›. ? tayaron "will hunt" (LL); ayngaru payeng "I will let you know" (AMFP).

ayfo [aj.fo] (Pron) they (3rd person plural; short plural: fo ). ? zene oe ’awsiteng tìkangkem sivi fohu … "I must work together with those …" (AMFP).

  1. ayfeyä [aj.f?.jæ] (Genitive:) their. (short plural: feyä). ? holpxay ayzekwäyä feyä "the number of their fingers" (Some Conjunctions and Adverbs).
  2. ayforu [aj.fo.?u] (Dative:) to them. (short plural: foru ). ? foru ’upxaret oel fpole’ "I have sent them a message" (AMFP).

ayla [aj.la] (Adj) the others. ? ’Awa tìpawmìri ’iveyng oe set; aylari zusawkrr ’ayeyng. [Let me answer one of the questions now; the others I will answer in the future.] (Numerals).

aylaru [aj.?la.?u] (Pron) contraction of ay-lahe-ru (to the others) (Dative).

aynga [aj.??a] (Pron) you (2nd person plural). ? Terìran ayoe ayngane "We are walking your way" (ASG, Hunt Song); ayngakip "among you" (ASG, Hunt Song); nìaynga "(the same) like you" (AMFP).

  1. ayngal [aj.??al] (Agentive:) you. ? ha ftxey awpot [< ’awpot?] ayngal "so choose one" (ASG, Hunt Song); fpole’ ayngal oer a ’upxaret "[I have heard] the message you have sent me" (AMFP).
  2. aynge [aj.???.jæ] (Genitive:) your. ? oel ’efu ayngeyä tìyawnit "I feel your love" (AMFP); ’eylan karyusì anygeyä "your friend and teacher" (AMFP).
  3. ayngar [aj.??a?] (or) ayngaru [aj.??a.?u] (Dative:) to you. ? Ayftxozä Lefpom! "Happy Holidays!" (UGO); ayngaru seiyi irayo "I thank you" (AMFP); paye’un sweya fya’ot a zamivunge oel ayngar … "I will decide the best way to bring you …" (AMFP).
  4. ayngati [aj.??a.ti] (Patientive:) you. ? Oel ayngati kameie, ma oeyä eylan "I see you, my friends." (AMFP).

ayngenga [aj.??.?a] (Pron) you (2st person plural; deferential or ceremonial form); ? aynga. ? ([9]).

ayoe [aj.?o.?] (Pron) we (1st person plural, exclusive). ? Terìran ayoe … rerol ayoe … "We are walking … we are singing …" (ASG, Hunt Song); Tivìran po ayoekip … "Let her walk among us …" ([10] Jan 09).

  1. ayoer [aj.w??] (or) ayoeru [aj.w?.?u] (Dative:) to us. ? trrit a ngal tìyìng ayoer(u) aylì’ut n’ìul "the day that you will give us more words" (CwT).

ayohe [aj.o.h?] (Pron) we (1st person plural exclusive; deferential or ceremonial form); ? ayoe. ? The inclusive form is ohe ayngengasì [I and you] or ohe pxengengasì [I and (the three of) you] ([11]).

ayoeng [aj.?w??] (or) awnga [aw?a] (Pron) we (1st person plural, inclusive). ? ([12]).

  1. ayoengal [aj.w?.?al] (or) awngal [aw?al] (Agentive:) we. ? ([13] Feb 18); awngal yom wutsot [we eat the meal] (Why is).
  2. awngeyä [aw??.jæ] (Genitive:) our. ? Aylì’ufa awngeyä ’eylanä a’ewan Markusì "In the words of our young friend Markus" (AMFP).
  3. awngar [aw?a?] (Dative:) to us. ? … fohu a … zamolunge awngar "with those who brought us …" (AMFP).

ayRam aLusìng [aj.??am a.lu.?s??] (NP) the Floating Mountains.

Ä [æ]

[æ] (M) genitive suffix (in case of the word ending on a consonant, diphthong or pseudo-vowel) [allomorph: -yä ]. ? ayzìsìtä kato "the rhythm of the years" (ASG, Weaving Song); tìftia kifkeyä "the study of the physical world" (SciMag); [kato] trrä sì txonä "[the rhythm] of night and day [lit.: day and night]" (ASG, Weaving Song).

äie [æ.?i.?] (N) vision (spiritual sense).

‹äng› [æ?] (Inf 2) to indicate negative feelings ‹pej›. ? längu "is-neg-attitude", tayarängon "will hunt (and the speaker feels negative about it)" (LL); ke pamähängem kea tì’eyng "no answer has arrived" (AMFP).

äo [?æ.o] (Adp–) under, below. ? äo Vitrautral "under the Tree of Souls" (Lemondrop).

‹äp› [æ.p] (Inf pre-1) to make a reflexive verb, which is intransitive. ? oe tsäpe’a "I see myself." (RaN).

ätxäle [æ.?t?æ.l?] (N) request.

ätxäle si [æ.?t?æ.l? si] (Vin) request. ? Uses tsnì to introduce the clause for what is requested, ätxäle si tsnì livu oheru Uniltaron "I respectfully request the Dream Hunt" (BtS).

E [?]

ean [??.an] (Adj) blue, green. ? Katot taftxu oel nìean nìrim "I weave the rhythm in yellow and blue [lit.: blue and yellow]" (ASG, Weaving Song).

‹ei› [?.i] (Inf 2) to indicate positive feelings ‹approb› [allomorph: -eiy ]. ? tayareion "will hunt (and the speaker feels positive about it)" (LL); Oel ngati kameie "I See you" (UGO); ayngaru seiyi irayo "I thank you" (AMFP).

‹eiy› [?.i.j] (Inf 2) allomorph of ? ‹ei› (in case of a following i).

ekxan [?.?k?an] (N) barricade, obstruction.

ekxtxu [?k?.'t?u] (Adj) rough. ? Ta’leng prrnenä lu faoi, pum koaktuä ekxtxu. "A baby’s skin is smooth, an old person’s is rough." (Na'viteri 2012-1-9)

eltu [??l.tu] (N) brain.

eltu lefngap [??l.tu l?.?f?ap] (N) computer (lit.: metallic brain).

eltu si [??l.tu si] (Vin) pay attention, quit goofing off.

eltungawng [??l.tu.?aw?] (N) brainworm (zool.).

emrey [?m.???j] (Vin) 22 survive (a life-threatening episode).

emza’u [?m.?za.?u] (V) pass (a test).

eo [??.o] (Adp–) before, in front of.

‹er› [?.?] (Inf 1) to indicate imperfective aspect ‹ipfv›. ? teraron "be hunting" (LL); Neytiri herahaw "Neytiri is sleeping" (MSNBC); oe perey "I am waiting" (AMFP); palulukan a teraron "a thanator that's hunting" ([14]).

etrìp [??t.??p] (Adj) favorable, auspicious.

Etrìpa syayvi! [??t.??p.a ?sjaj.vi] (Idiom) "Good luck!".

EY [?j]

eyawr [?j.?aw?] (Adj) correct, right. ? ([15]).

‹eyk› [?j.k] (Inf pre-1) to make a causative verb; the person, who is made to do the action of the verb, is added as a dative (A makes 'to' B doing something) or using fa (A has something be done 'by' B). ? Eytukanìl Neytirir yerikit teykolaron "Eytukan made Neytiri hunt a hexapede" (or) Eytukanìl fa Neytiri yerikit teykolaron "Eytukan had a hexapede hunted by Neytiri" ([16] Feb 17).

eyk [?jk] (Vtr) lead. ? tsampongut Tsu’teyìl iveyk, "Tsu’tey will lead the war party" ([17]).

eyktan [??jk.tan] (N) leader.

eykyu ['?jk.ju] (N) leader (typically of a small group). ? Utralti a tsauo Loak wäparman pol vol fa kxetse. "She used her tail to point out the tree Loak was hiding behind." (Na'viteri 2012-6-19)

eylan ? ’eylan.

Eywa [??j.wa] (NP) Eywa, 'the Great Mother' (the deity of the Na’vi).

Eywa ngahu [??j.wa ??a.hu] (Idiom) Goodbye! Eywa (be) with you! ? Kìyevame ulte Eywa ngahu "See you again, and may Eywa be with you" (FL).

Eywa’eveng [??j.wa.???.v??] (NP) Pandora (lit.: child of Eywa). ? "it works as a compound" ([18] Jan 20).

F [f]

fa [fa] (Adp–) with, by means of. ? aylì’ufa "in the words [of …]" (AMFP); Eytukanìl fa Neytiri yerikit teykolaron "Eytukan had a hexapede hunted by Neytiri" ([19] Feb 17).

fahew [fa.?h?w] (N) smell. ? fahew "smell" (LL).

faoi ['fa.o.i] (Adj) smooth. ? (Na'viteri 2012-1-9)

fay+ [faj] (M+) proximal demonstrative prefix (plural): these (… here). ? fayvrrtep "these demons" (TO); teri faytele [about these topics] ([20] Feb 17).

kä [fæ.'kæ] (Vin 22) go up, ascend. ? (Na'viteri 2012-1-22)

pa [?fæ.pa] (N) top.

za’u [fæ.'za.?u] (Vin 23) come up, ascend. ? Fäziva’u ne tsenge a oel tok! "Come up to where I am!" Fäza’u tsawke krrpe? "When will the sun come up?" (Na'viteri 2012-1-22)

fe’ [f??] (Adj) bad. ? (Na'viteri 2011-07-24).

fekem [?f?.k?m] (N) accident. ? (Na'viteri 2011-07-24).

few [f?w] (Adp-) across, aiming for the other side (don't confuse with ka). ? po spä few payfya fte smarit sivutx "he jumped across the stream to track his prey" (Na'viteri 2011-1-31).

fewi [?f?.wi] (Vtr) chase.

fewtusok [?f?w.tu.sok] (Adj) opposite, on the opposite side (pronounced fewtsok in rapid speech). ? oe kawkrr ne fewtusoka pa’o kilvanä ke kamä "I never went to the opposite side of the river" (Naviteri).

feyä ? ayfo.

fì- [f?] (M–) proximal demonstrative prefix (singular): this (… here). ? fìskxawng(ìri) "this moron" (TO); fìaylì’u(t) [these words] ([21] Jan 27).

’u [f?.??u] (Pron) this (thing) (? a fì’u). ? "Fì’u means 'this thing, object, idea, fact, abstraction'" ([22] Dec 27); Fpìrmìl oel futa aynga natsew tsive’a fì’ut. [I was just thinking that you might want to see this] ([23]).

fya [f?.?fja] (Adv) this way, like this.

kem [f?.?k?m] (Pron) this (action).

kintrr [f?.?kin.tr??] (Adv) this (present) week. ? (Na'viteri 2011-4-5)

muntrr [f?.?mun.tr??] (Adv) this (present) weekend. ? (Na'viteri 2011-4-5)

po [?f?.po] (Pron) this one (person or thing). ? fìpoti oel tspìyang, fte tìkenong liyevu aylaru "I will kill this one as a lesson to the others" (Capturing Avatar).

trr [f?.?tr??] (Adv) today.

txan [f?.?t?an] (Adv) so, to such an extent. ? fìtxan nìftxavang "so passionately" (AMFP).

txon [f?.?t?on] (Adv) tonight. ? Fìtxon na ton alahe nìwotx pelun ke lu teng? [Why is this night not the same like all other nights?] (Why is).

tsap [f?.??ap] (Adv) each other. ? From fìpo "this one" + tsapor "to that one". Mefo fìtsap mäpoleyam tengkrr tsngawvìk "The two of them hugged each other and wept" (Na'viteri 2011-10-31).

tseng [f?.????] (or) tsenge [f?.????.?] (Adv) here, this place. ? Fayvrrtep fìtsenge lu kxanì "These demons are forbidden here" (TO); Nga za’u fìtseng pxìm srak? "Do you come here often?" (Lemondrop).

fìvospxì [f?.vo.?sp??] (Adv) this month. ? Na'viteri 2011-4-5

fkarut [?fka.?ut] (V) peel.

fkay [fkaj] (Adj) hateful.

fkew [fk?w] (Adj) mighty.

fkeytok [?fk?j.tok] (Vin 22) exist. ? ngal fwerew a tute ke fkeytok "the person you’re looking for doesn’t exist" (Na'viteri 2011-4-1).

fkio [?fki.o] (N) tetrapteron.

fkip [fkip] (Adp–) up among.

fko [fko] (Pron) one, they (in the general sense). ? Oeru syaw fko Neytiri "My name is Neytiri [lit.: one calls (to) me Neytiri]" (RaN).

fkxake [?fk?a.k?] (V) itch.

fkxen [fk??n] (N) vegetable (food).

fkxile [?fk?i.l?] (N) bib necklace. ? (Na'viteri 2011-8-3).

flawkx [flawk?] (N) leather. ? (Na'viteri 2012-1-22)

flawm [flawm] (N) cheek. (Na'viteri 2012-3-28)

flä [flæ] (Vin) succeed. ? Tìsteftxaw ngeyä flolä nìltsan! [Your examination succeeded well!] ([24] Jan 20).

flew [fl?w] (N) throat.

flì [fl?] (Adj) thin. ? Krro krro, flìa vul arusey to nutxa pum akerusey lu txur "A thin living branch is sometimes stronger than a thick dead one" (Na'viteri 2011-11-30).

flìnutx [fl?.?nut?] (N) thickness. ? Sre fwa sìn tskxepay tìran, zene fko flìnutxit stiveftxaw "It’s necessary to check the thickness of the ice before walking on it" (Na'viteri 2011-11-30).

fmal [fmal] (Vtr) sustain. ? meoauniaeal frakrr awngati fmereial "harmony is always sustaining us" (Christmas Songs).

fmawn [fmawn] (N) news, something to report. ? sìltsana fmawn "good news" AMFP).

fmetok [?fm?.tok] (V) test.

fmi [fmi] (Vtr + subjunctive) try, attempt.

fmokx [fmok?] (N) jealousy, envy. ? Furia fìtxan fnängan Ulreyìl tsko swizawit, lu oeru fmokx "I’m jealous of the fact that Ulrey is such an excellent archer" (Na'viteri 2011-10-31).

fnan [fnan] (Vtr) be good at.  ? srake fnan ngal lì’fyati leNa’vi "are you good at Na’vi?" (Na'viteri 2010-9-29).

fnawe’ [fna.?w??] (Adj) cowardly.

fnawe’tu [fna.?w??.tu] (N) coward.

fne- [fn?] (M–) kind, type (of) (noun prefix). ? (EDM).

fnel [fn?l] (N) kind, type. ? (EDM).

fnepe [?fn?.p?] (Q) which kind (alternative form: pefnel). ? (EDM).

fnu [fnu] (V) quiet (= be quiet).

fngap [f?ap] (N) metal. ? (MND).

fngo’ [f?o?] (Vtr) require, demand. ? Fol fte ayspe’etut livonu fngo’ ’upet? "What are they demanding in order for them to release the captives?" Fìfnetìfkeytokìl fngo’ futa kem sivi fko pxiye’rìn. "This kind of situation requires immediate action." Karyul fngolo’ futa aynumeyu pivate ye’krr. "The teacher required the students to arrive early." (Na'viteri 2012-1-9)

fo, fo… ? ayfo, ayfo….

fpak [fpak] (V) hold off, suspend action.

fpe’ [fp??] (Vtr) send. ? fpole’ ayngal oer a ’upxaret "[I have heard] the message you have sent me" (AMFP).

fpeio [fp?.?i.o] (N) challenge (ceremonial).

fpi [fpi] (Adp+) for (the benefit or sake of).  ? Fayupxare layu aysngä’iyufpi "these messages will be for beginners" (Na’viteri).

fpìl [fp?l] (Vtr) think. ? "fpìl is transitive", Oel fpolìl futa … "I thought this thing, (namely) that …" ([25] Dec 27).

fpìlfya [?fp?l.fja] (N) thought pattern, way of thinking.

fpom [fpom] (N) well-being, happiness; peace. ? Ngaru lu fpom srak? "Do you have a sense of well-being?" (VF).

fpomtokx [fpom.?tok?] (N) health (physical). ? (EDM).

fpxafaw [?fp?a.faw] (N) medusa (zool.).

fpxäkìm [?fp?æ.k?m] (V) enter. ? Tsawke fpxeräkìm nemfa taw. or Tsawke fpxeräkìm. "The sun is rising." (Na'viteri 2012-1-22)

fra’u [?f?a.?u] (Pron) everything. ? vay set ’almong a fra’u "everything that has blossomed until now" (GMA).

frakrr [?f?a.kr??] (N) every time; (Adv) always. ? "frakrr 'always'", about krr being a noun used averbially see also (Krr noun vs. adverb).

fralo [?f?a.lo] (Adv) every time, each time. ? fralo poe poltxe san kehe "each time she said 'no'" (TH).

frapo [?f?a.po] (Pron) everyone.

frato [?f?a.to] (M) comparative marker: than all, superlative (most, -est).

fratrr [f?a.?tr??] (Adv) every day.

fratxon [f?a.?t?on] (Adv) every night.

fratseng [?f?a.???] (Adv) everywhere.

frawzo [f?aw.?zo] (Idiom) All is well; everything is fine or OK. ? (fra’u + zo).

frìp [f??p] (Vtr) bite.

frrfen [?fr??.f?n] (Vtr) visit. ? "frrfen (stress on 1st) = visit (transitive verb)" (Vocabulary and <iyev>).

frrtu [?fr??.tu] (N) visitor, guest. ? "frrtu = guest" (Vocabulary and <iyev>).

ftang [fta?] (Vin) stop. ? Uses modal syntax (Stop!).

ftawnemkrr [ftaw.?n?m.kr??] (N) past.

ftär [ftæ?] (Adj) left (not right).

fte [ft?] (Conj) so that, (in order) to. ? Hetuwongìl awngeyä swotut ska’a, fte kllkivulat keruseya tskxet "The aliens destroy our sacred place to dig up dead rock" ([26]).

fteke [?ft?.k?] (Conj) so that not, lest.

ftem [ft?m] (Vtr) pass by (something).

ftia [fti.?a] (V) study.

ftu [ftu] (Adp–) from (direction).

ftue [?ftu.?] (Adj) easy, simple. ? Sìpawm ngeyä ke lu ftue [Your questions aren't easy] ([27] Feb 18).

ftxavang [?ft?a.va?] (Adj) passionate.

ftxey [ft??j] (Vtr) choose. ? ftxey awpot [< ’awpot?] (…) ayngal "choose one" (ASG, Hunt Song).

ftxì [ft??] (N) tongue. ? (MND).

ftxìlor [ft??.?lo?] (Adj) delicious, good-tasting.

ftxìvä’ [ft??.?væ?] (Adj) bad-tasting.

ftxo [ft?o.?zæ] (N) holiday, celebration, happy occasion. ? Ayftxozä Lefpom! "Happy Holidays!" (UGO and [28] Dec 27); Ayftozä [sic!] lefpom ayngaru nìwotx! "Happy Holidays to You All!" (OoOA).

ftxo si [ft?o.?zæ si] (Vin) celebrate. ? Tengkrr ftxozä sereiyi awnga, ke tswiva’ aylomtuti ko! "While we are celebrating, let us not forget those who we wish could also be here (but can’t)." (Na'viteri 2011-07-24).

ftxu’u [ft?u.'l?.?u] (Vin 11) orate, give a speech. ? Mawkrra Tsyeyk ftxolulì’u, tslam frapol futa slu po Olo’eyktan amip. "After Jake spoke, everyone understood that he had become the new Clan Leader." (Na'viteri 2012-6-19)

ftxu’uyu [ft?u.'l?.?u.ju] (N) orator, (public) speaker. (Na'viteri 2012-6-19)

fu [fu] (Conj) or. ? "nor" can be expressed using "or" (fu) with a negative: to do neither A nor B is not to do A or B (MND).

fula [?fu.la] (Conj) that (contraction of fì’ul a, ? a fì’u).

furia [?fu.?i.a] (Conj) that (contraction of fì’uri a, ? a fì’u).

futa [?fu.ta] (Conj) that (contraction of fì’ut a, ? a fì’u). ? Oel new futa kivä [I want to go], Oel new futa Taronyu kivä "I want Taronyu to go" (CwT); Oel fpolìl futa … "I thought this thing, (namely) that …" ([29] Dec 27).

fwa [fwa] (Conj) that (contraction of fì’u a, ? a fì’u).

fwä [?fwæ.k?] (N) mantis.

fwefwi [?fw?.fwi] (Vin) whistle. ? Nga fwefwi nìlkeftang a fì’u lu säsrätx atxan oeru "It’s a major annoyance to me that you whistle continuously" (Na'viteri 2011-9-24).

fwel [fw?l] (Adj) broken.

fwem [fw?m] (Adj) dull, blunt (as a point). ? Fìtsgnanit ke tsun oe yivom. Koaktanä aysre’ längu fwem. "I can’t eat this meat. An old man’s teeth are dull." (Na'viteri 2012-3-28)

fwew [fw?w] (Vtr) look for, seek.

fya’o [?fja.?o] (N) path, way; method, manner (pat.: fya’ot). ? paye’un sweya fya’ot "I will decide the best way" (AMFP).

fyape [?fja.p?] (Q) how (alternative form: pefya). ? Fyape fko syaw ngar? "What's your name?" [lit.: How does one call (to) you?]. (Reflexives).

fya·wìntxu [fja.w?n.?t?u] (Vin + dative) guide. ? oe new ayngaru fyawivìntxu "I want to guide you" (AMFP).

fyel [fj?l] (Vtr) seal, cement, make impervious. ? Txo fkol ke fyivel uranit paywä, zene fko slivele. "If one does not seal a boat against water, one must swim." (Na'viteri 2012-6-19)

fyep [fj?p] (Vtr) hold in the hand, grasp, grip. ? Can be extended to general holding, not just in the hands. Ngäzìk lu fwa var tskoti fyivep tengkrr utralit tsyerìl. "It’s hard to keep holding a bow while climbing a tree." Oel tstalit fyolep fa aysre’. "I held the knife in my teeth." (Na'viteri 2012-3-28)

fyeyn [fj?jn] (Adj) ripe, mature, adult.

fyeyntu [?fj?jn.tu] (N) adult person.

H [h]

ha [ha] (Conj) so, in that case. ? ha ftxey awpot [< ’awpot?] "So choose one" (ASG, Hunt Song).

ha’ngir [ha?.??i?] (N); (Adv) afternoon. ? (TH).

hahaw [?ha.haw] (Vin) sleep. ? "hahaw = sleep" ([30] Jan 27); Neytiri herahaw "Neytiri is sleeping" (MSNBC).

ham [ham] (Adj) last, previous. ? (TH).

hamalo [ha.?ma.lo] (Adv) last time.

hangham [?ha?.ham] (Vin) laugh.

hangvur ['ha?.vu?] (N) joke, funny story. ? Poleng Neytiril hangvurit a frapot heykangham. "Neytiri told a joke that made everyone laugh." (Na'viteri 2012-1-9)

hapxì [ha.?p??] (N) part.

hapxìtu [ha.?p??.tu] (N) member. ? (TH).

hasey [ha.?s?j] (Adj) done, finished.

hasey si [ha.?s?j si] (Vin) accomplish, bring to a conclusion. ? (Na'viteri 2011-4-5)

hawl [hawl] (V) prepare. ? (TH).

hawntsyokx [hawn.??jok?] (N) glove. ? (Na'viteri 2011-8-3).

hawnu [?haw.nu] (V) protect, shelter.

hawnven [hawn.?v?n] (N) shoe. ? From hawnu "protect" + venu "foot" (Na'viteri 2011-8-3).

hawng [haw?] (N) overabundance.

hawngkrr [?haw?.kr??] (Adv) late.

hawre’ [haw.???] (N) hat. ? Originally *hawnre’o, from hawnu "protect" + re’o "head" (Na'viteri 2011-8-3).

hawtsyìp [?haw.?j?p] (N) nap. ? (Na'viteri 2011-07-24).

hay [haj] (Adj) next. ? alo ahay oe zasya’u mì rewon "next time I'll come in the morning" (TH).

hayalo [ha.?ja.lo] (Adv) next time. ? hayalo ta oe or hayalo oeta "next time from me," a phrase for responding to thanks (Na’viteri).

hek [h?k] (Vin) be curious, odd, strange, unexpected.  ? ngeyä säfpìl Sawtuteteri heiek oer nìtxan "your idea about the Sky People is very interesting to me (because it seems unusual);" fo nìNa’vi plltxe nìfya’o a hek "they speak Na’vi strangely" (Naviteri).

hermeyp [h??.?m?jp] (N) snow flurries. ? (Na'viteri 2011-4-1).

hertxayo [?h??.t’a.jo] (N) field of snow. ? (Na'viteri 2011-4-1).

her [?h??.w?] (N) snow. ? (Na'viteri 2011-4-1).

herwìva [?h??.w?.va] (N) snowflake. ? (Na'viteri 2011-4-1).

hetuwong ? ketuwong.

hewne [?h?w.n?] (Adj) soft (of an object).

heyn [h?jn] (Vin) sit.

hifwo ['hi.fwo] (Vin 12) flee, escape. (Na'viteri 2012-7-5)

hiyìk [?hi.j?k] (Adj) funny, strange.

’ang [?h?.?a?] (N) insect.

’i [?h?.?i] (Adj) little, small (in size).

krr [?h?.kr??] (N) second, a very short time. ? maw hìkrr ayoe tìyätxaw "we will return after a short time" (Zenke).

hìm [h?m] (Adj) small (in quantity), a little.

hìmpxì [h?m.?p??] (N) minority, least, small part. ? Hìmpxì Sawtuteyä lu tstunwi, slä feyä txampxì längu kawnglan "A minority of the Sky People are kind, but the majority are malicious" (Na'viteri 2011-11-30).

hìmtxampe [h?m.?t?am.p?] (Q) how much (alternative form: pìmtxan).

hìmtxan [h?m.?t?an] (N) amount.

no [h?.?no] (Adj) fine, detailed, precise (of things.)  ? pol ngop frakrr sìkenongit a hìno lu nìhawng "he always creates excessively detailed examples" (Naviteri).

txoa [h?.?t?o.a] (Idiom) excuse me, pardon me.

hoet ['ho.?t] (Adj) vast, broad, expansive. ? ’Rrtamì a tampay lu hoet. "The oceans on Earth are vast." (Na'viteri 2012-6-19)

hol [hol] (Adj) few. ? "hol = few" (Some Conjunctions and Adverbs).

holpxay [hol.?p?aj] (N) number. ? (Some Conjunctions and Adverbs).

holpxaype [hol.?p?aj.p?] (Q) how many (alternative form: polpxay).

hona ['ho.na] (Adj) endearing, adorable, cute. ? Ayhemìri ’ewana tsanantangur ahì’i tìng nari. Lu hona, kefyak? "Look at what that little young viperwolf is doing. Isn’t that adorable?" (Na'viteri 2012-1-22)

horen ? koren.

hrrap [?hr??.ap] (N) danger.

hu [hu] (Adp–) with (together with somebody, accompaniment). ? hu nga (or) ngahu "with you" (LL); oehu "with me" (UGO).

hufwa [hu.?fwa] (Conj) although.

hufwe [hu.?fw?] (N) wind.

hultstxem [hul.??t??m] (Vtr) hinder, be an obstacle to (a person or a thing.) ? Ke new oel futa fìtìpängkxot ayngeyä hivultstxem "I don't want to derail your chat" (Naviteri).

hum [hum] (Vin) exit, leave, depart. ? Tsaysanhì hayum ye’rìn tawftu. or Tsaysanhì hayum ye’rìn. "Those stars will soon set." (Na'viteri 2012-1-22)

I [i]

i’en [?i?.?n] (N) stringed instrument.

iknimaya [?ik.ni.?ma.ja] (N) "Stairway to Heaven" (a rite of passage of the Na’vi).

ikran [?ik.?an] (N) ikran, banshee (zool.). ? ikran "banshee" (LL).

‹ilv› [il.v] (Inf 1) to indicate both, perfective aspect and subjunctive mood ‹pfv.sjv›. ? "present perfect subjunctive" (Fused -iv-infixes).

‹imv› [im.v] (Inf 1) to indicate both, past (or recent past) tense and subjunctive mood ‹pst.sjv› (or) ‹rec.sjv›. ? "past subjunctive" (Fused -iv-infixes).

inan [i.?nan] (Vtr) read (e.g. the forest), gain knowledge from sensory input. ? Tìomummì oeyä, pol na’rìngit inan nìltsan "As far as I know, he reads the forest well" (Na'viteri 2011-9-4).

io [?i.o] (Adp–) above.

ioang [i.?o.a?] (N) animal, beast.

ioi [i.?o.i] (N) (item of) adornment or ceremonial apparel. ? Nìlun ayioi a’eoio ayeyktanä lu lor frato "Of course the ceremonial wardrobes of the leaders are the most beautiful" (Na'viteri 2011-8-3).

ioi si [i.?o.i si] (Vin) adorn. ? Sevina tsa’everu ahì’i mesa’sem ioi soli fa miktsang "The parents adorned that pretty little girl with earrings" (Na'viteri 2011-8-3).

irayo [i.??a.jo] (N/Idiom) thank(s). ? Irayo nìmum [Thank you again] ([31] Jan 27).

irayo si [i.??a.jo si] (Vin + dative) to thank (someone). ? ayngaru seiyi irayo "I thank you" (AMFP).

‹irv› [i?.v] (Inf 1) to indicate both, imperfective aspect and subjunctive mood ‹ipfv.sjv›. ? "present imperfect subjunctive" (Fused -iv-infixes).

-it [it] (M) patientive suffix (in case of the word ending on a consonant) [allomorphs: -t, -ti ]. ? Neytiril yerikit tolaron "Neytiri hunted a hexapede" (MSNBC); oel ’efu ayngeyä tìyawnit "I feel your love" (AMFP); kifkeyit Eywa’evengä zamolunge awngar "[they] have brought us the world of Pandora" (AMFP).

‹iv› [i.v] (Inf 1) to indicate subjunctive mood ‹sjv›.

  1. as optative ‹opt› to indicate a wish or hope. ? oeyä txe’lan livu ngay "let my heart be true" (ASG, Hunt Song); ’Ivong *Na’vi! "Let *Na’vi bloom!" (AMFP).
  2. as iussive ‹just› to indicate encouragement. ? spivaw oeti rutxe "please believe me" (AMFP); Oeyä ikran slivu nga "Be my ikran" (Lemondrop).
  3. accompanying certain verbs, namely
    1. fmi (try, attempt).
    2. new (want). ? Txo new nga rivey, oehu! "Come with me, if you want to live!" (UGO); oe new ayngaru fyawivìntxu "I want to guide you" (AMFP).
    3. tsun (be able). ? fmawn a tsun oe ayngaru tivìng "news to give you" [= news, which I am able to give you] (AMFP).
    4. zene (must). ? livu win sì txur oe zene "I must be fast and strong" (ASG, Hunt Song); zene oe ’awsiteng tìkangkem sivi fohu … "I must work together with those …" (AMFP).
  4. in hypothetical conditional sentences (potentialis [and irrealis?]). ? pxan livu txo nì’aw oe ngari, tsakrr … "only if I am worthy of you, [then] …" (ASG, Hunt Song).

‹iyev› [i.j?.v] (Inf 1) to indicate both, future (or immediate future) tense and subjunctive mood ‹fut.sjv› (or) ‹imm.sjv› (alternative form: ‹ìyev›). ? "The -iyev- infix (…) is a 'fused' form combining tense and subjunctive mood. This one is a future subjunctive." (Vocabulary and <iyev>); "Both -iyev- and -ìyev- are acceptable." (Fused -iv-infixes).

Ì [?]

-ìl [?l] (M) agentive suffix (in case of the word ending on a consonant) [allomorph: -l ]. ? oeri tìngayìl txe’lanit tivakuk "Let the truth strike my heart" (ASG, Hunt Song); Hetuwongìl awngeyä swotut ska’a "The aliens destroy our sacred place" ([32]).

ì [??.læ] (or) ì [?.?læ] (Adp+) by, via, following. ? Rerol tengkrr kerä / Ìlä fya’o avol / Ne kxamtseng. "Ee are singing while going / Along the eight paths / To the center" (Ritual Music).

  1. ìlä [??læ] according to. ? Ìlä Feyral, muntxa soli Ralu sì Newey nìwan mesrram. "According to Peyral, Ralu and Newey were secretly married the day before yesterday." (Na'viteri 2012-7-5)

ìlva [??l.va] (N) flake, drop, chip.  ? When used in compounds reduces to -ìva ? (Na'viteri 2011-4-1).

‹ìm› [?.m] (Inf 1) to indicate recent past tense ‹rec›. ? tìmaron "just now hunted" (LL).

ìpxa [?.?p?a] (N) fern.

-ìri [??i] (M) topic suffix (in case of the word ending on a consonant) [allomorph: -ri ]. ? Fìskxawngìri tsap?alute sengi [< sängi?] oe "I apologize for this moron" (TO); Sìpawmìri oe ngaru seiyi irayo [I thank you for your questions] ([33] Jan 19).

‹ìrm› [??.m] (Inf 1) to indicate both, recent past tense and imperfective aspect ‹rec.ipfv›. ? tìrmaron "was just now hunting" (LL).

‹ìy› [?.j] (Inf 1) to indicate immediate future tense ‹imm›. ? yomtìyìng "will feed" (ASG, Hunt Song); trrit a ngal tìyìng ayoer(u) aylì’ut n’ìul "the day that you will give us more words" (CwT).

‹ìyev› ? ‹iyev›.

K [k]

ka [ka] (Adp–) across.

kakrel [kak.???l] (Adj) blind.

kalin [ka.?lin] (Adj) sweet. ? (MND).

kaltxì [kal.?t??] (Idiom) Hello! Greetings! ? Kaltxì! "Greetings! Hello!" (VF); Kaltxì ngaru [I greet you] ([34] Dec 15).

kaltxì si [kal.?t?? si] (Vin) say hello, greet.

kam [kam] (Adp-) ago. ? Tskot sngolä’i po sivar ’a’awa trrkam "He started to use the bow several days ago" (Na'viteri 2011-9-24).

kame [?ka.m?] (Vtr) see (spiritual sense), acknowledge. ? Oel ngati kameie "I See you" (UGO).

kan [kan] (V) aim. ? "kan is the verb meaning 'aim'" ([35] Dec 20).

kan’ìn [?kan.??n] (Vtr) focus on, specialize in, be particularly interested in. ? Entul kan’ìn tìwusemit "Entu specializes in fighting" (Naviteri).

kanfpìl [?kan.fp?l] (Vin) concentrate, focus one’s attention ? Furia sneyä tskoti ngop po kanfpìl "He’s concentrating on making his bow" (Na'viteri 2011-10-31).

kanom ['ka.nom] (Vtr 12) acquire, get. ? Oeyä tsmukanìl mipa tskoti kìmaneiom. "My brother just got a new bow, I’m happy to say." (Na'viteri 2012-1-22)

kanu [?ka.nu] (Adj) smart, intelligent (for a person).

kangay [ka.??aj] (Adj) valid.

kar [ka?] (Vtr) teach. ? ngal keiar oeru futa meoauniaeal frakrr awngati fmereial "you teach me that harmony is always sustaining us"; ngal keiar oeru fì’ut "you teach me this" (Christmas Songs).

karyu [?ka?.ju] (N) teacher. ? ’eylan karyusì anygeyä "your friend and teacher" (AMFP).

kato [?ka.to] (N) rhythm (pat.: katot). ? Tompayä kato, tsawkeyä kato "The rhythm of rain and sun" (ASG, Weaving Song); Katot täftxu oel "I weave the rhythm" (ASG, Weaving Song).

kavuk [ka.?vuk] (N) treachery.

kavuk si [ka.?vuk si] (Vin) betray.

kaw’it [kaw.??it] (Adv) not a bit, not at all. ? Used in ke... kaw’it for not at all (April 6 Miscellany).

kawkrr [?kaw.kr??] (N) no time; (Adv) never. ? "kawkrr 'never'", about krr being a noun used averbially see also (Krr noun vs. adverb).

kawng [kaw?] (Adj) bad, evil.

kawnglan [?kaw?.lan] (Adj) malicious, bad-hearted. ? Hìmpxì Sawtuteyä lu tstunwi, slä feyä txampxì längu kawnglan "A minority of the Sky People are kind, but the majority are malicious" (Na'viteri 2011-11-30).

kawngsar [?kaw?.sa?] (Vtr) exploit. ? (Na'viteri 2011-07-24).

kawtu [?kaw.tu] (Pron) no one, nobody. ? ke lu kawtu "there's nobody" (Lemondrop).

kay [kaj] (Adp-) from now (in the future). ? Zaya’u Sawtute fte awngati skiva’a kay zìsìt apxey! "The Sky People will come to destroy us three years from now!" (Na'viteri 2011-9-24).

kaym [kajm] (N); (Adv) evening. ? (TH).

[kæ] (Vin) go. ? Oe zene kivä "I must go" (CwT); poltxe Eytukan san oe kayä sìk "Eytukan said he would go [lit.: Eytukan said ‹quote.in› I will go ‹quote.out›]" ([36] Jan 21).

’ärìp [kæ.??æ.??p] (Vtr) push.

makto [kæ.?mak.to] (V) ride out.

pxì [kæ.?p??] (N) rear (rear part or section).

srìn [kæ.'s??n] (Vtr 22) lend. ? (Na'viteri 2012-1-22)

·teng [?kæ.t??] (Vin) spend time, hang out (with). ? All infixes go into . Nga pesuhu käteng nìtrrtrr "who do you typically spend time with?" (Naviteri).

satseng [kæ.?sa.???] (Adv) out there.

ke [k?] (Adv) not. ? oel pot ke spaw "I don't believe him" ([37] Jan 21); ke rey a tute "person who doesn't live / isn't alive" ([38]).

ke’aw [k?.??aw] (Adj) divided, torn apart, strife-ridden.

ke’u [?k?.?u] (Pron) nothing.

kea [?k?.a] (Adj) no ~ (to negate a noun).

keftxo [k?.?ft?o] (Adj) unhappy, upset; (Idiom) "How sad!". ? (EDM).

kefya [k?.?fja] (Idiom) used to create a tag question, in the form kefya srak? like Fr. "n'est-ce pas?", Engl. "right?", or Germ. "nicht wahr?" at the end of a statement; kefya srak? may be further shortened to kefyak? ? (Tag Question).

kehe [?k?.h?] (Adv) no.

kelfpomtokx [k?l.?fpom.tok?] (Adj) unhealthy. ? (EDM).

kelku [?k?l.ku] (N) home, house.

kelku si [?k?l.ku si] (Vin) live, dwell.

keltsun [k?l.??un] (Adj) impossible.

Kelutral [?k?l.ut.?al] (NP) Hometree ([former] home of the Omatikaya clan of the Na’vi). ? zera’u fte fol Kelutralti skiva’a "they're coming to destroy Hometree" (BtS).

kem [k?m] (N) action, deed. ? kem(ì)ri a ngaru prrte’ ke lu "any action which you don't like" (GMA).

kemlì’u [?k?m.l?.?u] (N) verb.

kemlì’uvi [?k?m.l?.?u.vi] (N) verb infix (lit.: spawn of action word). ? (Na’viteri).

kempe [?k?m.p?] (Q) what (action) (alternative form: pehem).

kenong [?k?.no?] (V) model, represent, exemplify.

kenten [?k?n.t?n] (N) fan lizard.

keng [k??] (Adv) even. ? ex. "didn't even try".

kerusey [?k?.?u.s?j] (Adj) dead. ? keruseya tute "dead (= non-living) person", Hetuwongìl awngeyä swotut ska’a, fte kllkivulat keruseya tskxet "The aliens destroy our sacred place to dig up dead rock" ([39]).

keteng [?k?.t??] (Adj) different.

ketuwong [?k?.tu.wo?] (N) alien (short plural: hetuwong). ? Hetuwongìl awngeyä swotut ska’a, fte kllkivulat keruseya tskxet "The aliens destroy our sacred place to dig up dead rock" ([40]).

kew [k?w] (Num) zero, 0. ? (TH).

kewong [?k?.wo?] (Adj) alien. ? fahew akewong "alien smell" (LL).

key [k?j] (N) face.

keyawr [k?.?jaw?] (Adj) wrong, incorrect.

keye’ung [k?.?j?.?u?] (N) insanity.

keyrel [?k?j.??l] (N) facial expression.

kezemplltxe [k?.z?m.pl??.'t??] (Adv) of course, needless to say. ? New Va’ru tskot Eytukanä zasrivìn. Kezemplltxe paylltxe san kehe. "Va’ru wants to borrow Eytukan’s bow. Of course he’ll say no." (Na'viteri 2012-6-19)

ki [ki] (Conj) but rather, but instead. ? nga plltxe ke nìfyeyntu ki nì’eveng "you speak not like an adult but a child" (Naviteri).

kifkey [ki.?fk?j] (N) the (physical, solid) world. ? tìftia kifkeyä "the study of the physical world ['science']" (SciMag).

  1. kifkey Eywa’evengä [ki.?fk?j ?j.wa.???.v??.æ] (N) world of Pandora (lit.: world of the child of Eywa) (? Eywa’eveng). ? kifkeyit Eywa’evengä zamolunge awngar "[they] have brought us the world of Pandora" (AMFP).

kilvan [kil.?van] (N) river. ? ngima kilvan (or) kilvan angim "long river" (LL).

kin [kin] (V) need.

kinam [ki.?nam] (N) leg.

kinamtil [ki.?nam.til] (N) knee.

kintrr [?kin.tr??] (N) (7-day) week. ? (Na'viteri 2011-04-05).

kintrram [kin.tr??.?am] (N) last week. ? (Na'viteri 2011-04-05).

kintrray [kin.tr??.?aj] (N) next week. ? (Na'viteri 2011-04-05).

ki [?ki.næ] (Num) seven. ? (Numerals).

kive [?ki.v?] (Adj) seventh. ? (Ordinal number).

kip [kip] (Adp–) among. ? ayngakip "among you" (ASG, Hunt Song); Tivìran po ayoekip … "Let her walk among us …" ([41] Jan 09).

kivol [?ki.vol] (Num) (octal:) 70 (= decimal: 56). ? (Numerals).

’ong [k?.??o?] (Adj) slow.

kìm [k?m] (V) spin.

mar [k?.?ma?] (Adj) in season (of foods, vegetable or animal) ? Teylu kìmar lìyu a fì’u oeru teya si "It fills me with joy that teylu is about to be in season" (Na'viteri 2011-10-31).

kìng [k??] (N) thread.

kìte’e [k?.t?.???] (N) service.

kìte’e si [k?.t?.??? si] (Vin) serve, be of service.

kìyevame [k?.j?.?va.m?] (Idiom) See you again soon! Goodbye! ? kìyevame "see you again" (FL); Kìyevame ulte Eywa ngahu "Goodbye for now, and may Eywa be with you" (AMFP); lit.: "May (we) See (each other again) in the future." (Fused -iv-infixes).

kll·fro’ [kl??.?f?o?] (V) be responsible.

kll· [kl??.'kæ] (Vin 22) go down, descend. ? (Na'viteri 2012-1-22)

kll·kulat [kl??.?ku.lat] (V) dig up. ? Hetuwongìl awngeyä swotut ska’a, fte kllkivulat keruseya tskxet "The aliens destroy our sacred place to dig up dead rock" ([42]).

kll·kxem [kl??.?k??m] (V) stand.

kllpa [?kl??.pa] (N) bottom.

kll [kl??.'pæ] (Vin 22) land, reach the ground. ? Maw sätswayon ayol ayoe kllpolä mì tayo a lu rofa kilvan. "After a short flight we landed in a field beside the river." (Na'viteri 2012-1-9)

kllpxìltu [kl??.?p??l.tu] (N) territory.

kllte [?kl??.t?] (N) ground.

klltxay [kl??.'t?aj] (Vin 22) lie on the ground. (Na'viteri 2012-3-28)

klltxeykay [kl??t??jkaj ] (Vtr) lay (something) on the ground. (Na'viteri 2012-3-28)

klltseng [?kl??.???] (N) position.

kllvawm [?kl??.vawm] (Adj) brown (from kllna vawm).

kllwo [kl??.'wo] (Vin 22) alight, land(process). ? Tompa ’eko nìhawng, ha zene awnga kllwivo. "The rain is too strong, so we must land." (Na'viteri 2012-1-9)

kllyem [kl??.'j?m] (Vtr 22) bury. ? Trram tolerkängup sa’nok ayawne. Poti kllyolem ayoel äo utralo alor a rofa kilvan. "My dear mother died yesterday. We buried her under a beautiful tree beside the river." (Na'viteri 2012-1-22)

kllza’u [kl??.'za.?u] (Vin 23) come down, descend. ? (Na'viteri 2012-1-22)

kipxì [ki.?p??] (N) one-seventh. ? (Naviteri).

ko [ko] (Part) sentence-final particle to solicit agreement. ? ([43] Jan 09).

koak [?ko.ak] (Adj) old, aged (for living things).

koaktan [?ko.ak.tan] (N) old man. ? (Na'viteri 2011-07-24).

koakte [?ko.ak.t?] (N) old woman. ? (Na'viteri 2011-07-24).

koaktu [?ko.ak.tu] (N) old person. ? (Na'viteri 2011-07-24).

kop [kop] (Adv) also, too, as well.

koren [ko.???n] (N) rule, guideline (short plural: horen). ? [zam(iv)unge oel ayngar] aylì’ut horentisì lì’fyayä leNa’vi "[I bring you] the words and the rules of Na’vi" (AMFP); "Rule is koren" ([44] Dec 20).

kosman [ko.?sman] (Adj) wonderful, terrific, fantastic. ? Fol lì’fyati awngeyä sar a fya’o lu kosman "It’s wonderful the way they use our language" (Na'viteri 2011-9-24).

krr [kr??] (N) time, ? a krr.

krra ['k???.a] (Conj) when, at the time that. ? Don’t use tsakrr for this purpose. Tsakrr is an adverb, not a conjunction. Oel tskoti ngaru tasyìng krra oeng ultxa si. "I’ll give you the bow when we meet." (Na'viteri 2012-3-31)

krro krro [?kr??.o ?kr??.o] (Adv) at times, on occasion (Na’viteri).

krr·nekx [kr??.?n?k?] (Vin) take/consume time.  ? fwa oel fìtìkangkemvit sngeykivä’i krrnolekx nìtxan "me starting this project took a long time" (Na’viteri).

krrpe [?kr??.p?] (Q) when (for questions only).

ku’up [?ku?.up] (Adj) heavy (physical weight). ? (TH).

kulat [?ku.lat] (Vtr) reveal, bring forth, uncover (literally and metaphorically) ? Lolu kavuk, slä Tsenul tìngayit kolulat "There was treachery, but Tsenu revealed the truth" (Na'viteri 2011-10-31).

kum [kum] (N) result. ? Kem amuiä, kum afe’. (Proverb) "Proper action, bad result." (Na'viteri 2012-6-19)

kuma ['kum.a] (Conj) that (as a result). ? Lu poe sevin nìftxan (OR: fìtxan) kuma yawne slolu oer. "She was so beautiful that I fell in love with her." (Na'viteri 2012-6-19)

kunsìp [?kun.s?p] (N) gunship.

kurakx [ku.??ak?] (V) drive out.

KX [k?]

kxa [k?a] (N) mouth.

kxam [k?am] (N) middle, midpoint.

kxam [?k?am.læ] (Adp–) through (= via the middle of).

kxamtrr [?k?am.tr??] (N); (Adv) midday, noon. ? (TH).

kxamtrrmaw [?k?am.tr??.maw] (N); (Adv) after midday, after noon (? kxamtrr). ? (TH).

kxamtxomaw [?k?am.t?o.maw] (N); (Adv) after midnight (as the middle of the night) (? kxamtxon). ? (TH).

kxamtxon [?k?am.t?on] (N); (Adv) midnight (as the middle of the night). ? (TH).

kxamtseng [?k?am.???] (N) center, place in the middle.

kxa [?k?a.n?] (Adj) forbidden. ? Fayvrrtep fìtsenge lu kxanì "These demons are forbidden here" (TO).

kxangangang [?k?a?.a?.a?] (Onom) boom.

kxawm [k?awm] (Adv) perhaps, maybe. ? kxawm oe harmahängaw [maybe I fell asleep] ([45] Jan 27).

kxayl [k?ajl] (Adj) high (in dimension; in space).

kxeltek ['k??l.t?k] (Vtr 12) pick up, lift. ? Pxiset ngeyä tskalepit kxeltek! "Pick up your crossbow right now!" Ke tsun tute a’aw tsatskxeti aku’up kxiveltek nì’awtu. "One person alone can’t lift that heavy rock." (Na'viteri 2012-1-9)

kxem [k??m] (Vin) be vertical. ? Fìrumut lumpe ke kxem? "Why isn’t this puffball tree vertical?" (Na'viteri 2012-3-28)

kxemyo ['k??m.jo] (N) wall, vertical surface. ? (Na'viteri 2012-3-28)

kxener [?k??.n??] (N) smoke.

kxetse [?k??.??] (N) tail.

kxeyey [?k??.j?j] (N) error, mistake. ? Kxeyeyri tsap’alute sengi oe, "kxeyey = mistake, error" (CwT).

kxitx [k?it?] (N) death.

kxll [k?l??] (N) charge.

kxll si [k?l?? si] (Vin) charge. ? Tengkrr palulukan moene kxll sarmi, ... (Reading In Public).

kxor [k?o?] (N) a wall or bank of powerful falls noted for its deafening roar and deadly force. ? (countable, but only rarely). (Na'viteri 2012-7-5)

kxu [k?u] (N) harm. ? ([46]).

kxuke [?k?u.k?] (Adj) safe.

kxukx [k?uk?] (Vtr) swallow. ? Fìnaer ftxìvä’ lu nìhawng, ha sweylu txo ngal tsat kxivukx nìwin "This drink tastes horrible, so you’d better swallow it quickly" (Na'viteri 2011-11-30).

kxutu [?k?u.tu] (N) enemy.

L [l]

-l [l] (M) agentive suffix (in case of the word ending on a vowel). ? Oel ngati kameie "I See you" (UGO); Neytiril yerikit tolaron "Neytiri hunted a hexapede" (MSNBC).

lahe [?la.h?] (Adj) other. ? tsakem rä’ä sivi aylaheru "don’t do that action (don’t act that (way)) to others" (GMA); Fìtxon na ton alahe nìwotx pelun ke lu teng? [Why is this night not the same like all other nights?] (Why is). Lahe has the sense of "else" when used with nouns marked with indefinite -o, as in lu law ’uo alahe, ma eylan "something else is clear, my friends" (Na’viteri).

lam [lam] (Vin) seem, appear. ? fayhetuwong fmi Na’vina livam "these aliens try to look like people" (Na'vi from Avatar Movie).

lapo [?la.po] (Pron) another one (person or thing).

laro [?la.?o] (Adj) clean.

latem [?la.t?m] (Vin) change (something is changing). ? "'Change' is indeed latem, but it's the intransitive version […]", the transitive version is formed using the causative infix: leykatem [someone changes something] ([47] Feb 15).

latsi [la.??i] (V) keep up with someone.

law [law] (Adj) clear, certain. ? Ngeyä Tireaioang zola’u a krr, law layu ngaru "When your Spirit Animal comes, you will know [lit.: it will be clear to you]" (Krr); Sìlpey oe, oeyä tì’eyng law livu ngar [I hope, my answer is clear to you] (Fused -iv-infixes).

law si [law si] (Vin) make clear.  ? tsun nga law sivi nì’it srak "could you make that a bit clearer?" (Naviteri).

lawk [lawk] (Vtr) discourse on, talk about, say something concerning. ? Poel oeti larmawk "she was talking about me." In the reflexive "introduce oneself," rutxe läpivawk nì’it "please talk a little bit about yourself" (Naviteri).

lawr [law?] (N) tune, melody. ? (Na'viteri 2011-9-24).

layon [la.?jon] (Adj) black.

txayn [læ.'t?ajn] (Vtr 12) defeat in battle, conquer. ? (Na'viteri 2012-1-22)

le- [l?] (M–) to turn a noun into an adjective. ? lefpom "happy" (OoOA); in cases, where adjectives of this type are positioned after their belonging noun, the attributive marker a is usually omitted, thus: ayftxozä lefpom = ayftxozä alefpom ([48] Dec 27); aylì’ut horentisì lì’fyayä leNa’vi "the words and the rules of Na’vi" (AMFP).

le’en [l?.???n?] (Adj) speculative, intuitive (of an action, not a person). ? Naviteri.

lefkrr [l?.?fkr??] (Adj) current.

lefngap [l?.?f?ap] (Adj) metallic.

lefpom [l?.?fpom] (Adj) happy. ? "lefpom = happy, peaceful, joyous (not for people)" (in contrast to ? nitram) ([49] Jan 31); Ayftxozä Lefpom! "Happy Holidays!" (UGO); Txon lefpom (livu ngar) "(It may be to you a) good night" ([50] Jan 31).

lefpomtokx [l?.fpom.?tok?] (Adj) healthy. ? (EDM).

lehawng [l?.?haw?] (Adj) excessive.

lehawngkrr [l?.?haw?.kr??] (Adj) late.

lehrrap [l?.?hr??.ap] (Adj) dangerous. ? Palulukan atusaron lu lehrrap "A hunting thanator is dangerous" ([51]).

leioae [l?.i.o.'a.?] (N) respect. ? Luke leioae olo’ä ke tsun kea eyktan flivä. "Without the respect of the clan, no leader can succeed." leioae amek "‘feigned respect" (Na'viteri 2012-2-29)

leioae si [l?ioa? si] (Vin) to respect. ? with the dative. Ngaru leioae si oe frato, ma ’eylan. "I respect you the most of all, friend." (Na'viteri 2012-2-29)

lek [l?k] (V) heed, obey.

lekin [l?.?kin] (Adj) necessary.

lekye’ung [l?k.?j?.?u?] (Adj) insane, crazy.

lemweypey [l?m.?w?j.p?j] (Adj) patient. ? (EDM).

lemrey [l?m.???j] (Adj) surviving (e.g., of entities from a group some of whom have died).

len [l?n] (Vin) occur, happen.

leNa’vi ? Na’vi.

leno [l?.?no] (Adj) thorough, detail-oriented (of a person.)

lenomum [l?.?no.mum] (Adj) curious. ? (? newomum).

lepay [l?.?paj] (Adj) watery, saturated.

lepwopx [l?p.wop’] (Adj) cloudy. ? lepwopx nìhol "lightly cloudy," lepwopx nìpxay "heavily cloud-covered" (Na'viteri 2011-05-05).

lerìk [l?.???k] (Adj) leafy.

leronsrel [l?.??on.s??l] (Adj.) imaginary. ? oe new sivop ne tsakifkey leronsrel, "I want to journey to that imaginary world" (Naviteri).

lertu [?l??.tu] (N) colleague.

lesar [l?.?sa?] (Adj) useful.

lesngä’i [l?.?s?æ.?i] (Adj) original, existing at or from the start, first in a series. ? Sweylu txo ngal ke txivìng säfpìlit lesngä’i "You shouldn’t abandon your original idea" (Na'viteri 2011-10-31).

leso’ha [l?so?ha] (Adj) enthusiastic, keen. ? (only for persons). (Na'viteri 2012-6-19)

letam [l?.?tam] (Adj) sufficient. ? (EDM).

letrr [l?.?tr??] (Adj) daily. ? "I like letrr for daily!", mì oeyä letrra tìrey [in may daily life] (CwT).

letrrtrr [l?.?tr??.tr??] (Adj) ordinary.

letwan [l?t.?wan] Adj dodgy, sneaky (of a person). ? Naviteri.

letxi [l?.?t?i] (Adj) hurried, frenzied ? (Na'viteri 2011-10-31).

letxiluke [l?.?t?i.lu.k?] (Adj) unhurried ? (Na'viteri 2011-10-31).

letsim [l?.??im] (Adj) original, unique, not derived from another source. ? Sweylu txo ngal ke txivìng säfpìlit letsim "You shouldn’t abandon your original idea" (Na'viteri 2011-10-31).

letsranten [l?.???an.t?n] (Adj) important. ? (EDM).

letsunslu [l?.??un.slu] (Adj) possible. ? "letsunslu = possible" (Vocabulary and <iyev>).

lew [l?w] (N) cover, lid.

lew si [l?w si] (Vin) cover.

lewäte [l?.wæ.?t?] (Adj) disagreeable, argumentative (of an agent). ? Naviteri.

leyapay [l?.?ja.paj] (Adj) foggy, misty.

leye’krr [l?.?j??.kr??] (Adj) early.

leyn [l?jn] (Vtr) repeat, do again. ? rutxe liveyn "please repeat (it)" (Naviteri).

lezeswa [l?.'z?.swa] (Adj) grassy. (Na'viteri 2012-7-5)

li [li] (Adv) already. ? tìkangkem li hasey lu "the work is already finished" (Naviteri).

lisre [?li.s??] (Adp+) by, before. ? kem si lisre srray, "do it by tomorrow" (Naviteri).

litx [lit?] (Adj) sharp (as a blade). ? Eltu si! Tsatstal afwem lu litx nìtxan. "Pay attention! That blunt knife is very sharp." (Na'viteri 2012-3-28)

lì’fya [?l??.fja] (N) language. ? eylanur lì’fyayä leNa’vi nìwotx "to all friends of the Na’vi language" (AMFP).

lì’fyavi [?l??.fja.vi] (N) expression, bit of language.

’u [?l?.?u] (N) word (pat.: lì’ut). ? [zam(iv)unge oel ayngar] aylì’ut horentisì lì’fyayä leNa’vi "[I bring you] the words and the rules of Na’vi" (AMFP); aylì’ufa "in the words [of …]" (AMFP).

’upam [?l?.?u.pam] (N) pronunciation.

’upe [l?.??u.p?] (Q) what (word, utterance) (alternative form: pelì’u).

’uvan ['l?.?u.van] (N) pun, word-play. ? Aylì’uvan aswey lu ’ipu, lu sìlronsem. "The best puns are both funny and clever." (Na'viteri 2012-1-9)

lìm [l?m] (Vin) far (= be far).

lìng [l??] (Vin) float in the air, hover.

lok [lok] (Adp–) close to.

lok [lok] (V) get close to, approach. ? fteke nìhawng livok "(careful) not to get too close".

lom [lom] (Adj) missing, missed (as an absent person who is longed for). ? Nga lom lu oer. ‘I miss you.’ (Na'viteri 2011-07-24).

lomtu [?lom.tu] (N) missed person. ? (Na'viteri 2011-07-24).

lonu [lo.?nu] (Vtr) release, let go.

lopx [lop?] (Vin) panic. (Na'viteri 2012-7-5)

lor [lo?] (Adj) beautiful, pleasant to the senses. ? Refers to physical beauty that’s apparent to the eye. Lor has wide applicability. [in contrast to ? sevin] (Na'viteri 2012-2-29).

lrrtok [?lr??.tok] (N) smile.

lrrtok si [?lr??.tok si] (Vin) smile.

lu [lu] (Vin) be. ? "Lu, (…) is 'to be'" ([52] Dec 18).

  1. be (am, are, is; the copula). ? Oeri ta peyä fahew (…) ontu teya längu. "My nose is full of his smell" (LL).
  2. to indicate existence (there is). ? awpot [< ’awpot?] ftxey ayngal a l(u) ayngakip "choose one among you [= one, who is/exists among you]" (ASG, Hunt Song).
  3. in combination with a dative to indicate possession (have). ? Ngaru lu fpom srak? "Do you have a sense of well-being?" (VF); layu oeru ye’rin sìltsana fmawn "I well soon have good news" (AMFP). "... contrary to the general principle of flexible word order, 'have' constructions usually begin with the verb. So 'I have an ikran' is: Lu oeru ikran." (Dative possessive).

luke [?lu.k?] (Adp–) without. ? ([53]).

lukpen [luk.?p?n] (Adj) naked, without clothing.

lumpe [?lum.p?] (Q) why (alternative form: pelun).

lun [lun] (N) reason. ? related to talun(a) "because"; see also oeyk and taweyk(a) (Some Conjunctions and Adverbs).

M [m]

ma [ma] (M–) vocative marker in front of the belonging noun. ? Tewti, ma Prrton! "Wow, Prrton!" (LL); Oel ayngati kameie, ma oeyä eylan "I see you, my friends" (AMFP); multiple vocatives are usually clustered: ma smukan sì smuke "Brothers and sisters!" (not: ma smukan sì ma smuke) ([54]); ma is always in front of all words included in the address: ma oeyä eylan "My friends!"; ma can't be used as a suffix or enclitic ([55]).

makto [?mak.to] (Vtr) ride. ? oeng ’awsiteng mivakto "let's ride together" (Lemondrop). Makto zong "take care," colloquial for mivakto nìzawnong "take care, travel safely" (forum).

mal [mal] (Adj) trustworthy, trust-inspiring. ? Fìtìkangkemviri letsranten ke new oe hu Ralu tìkangkem sivi. Po ke längu mal. "I don’t want to work with Ralu on this important project. He’s not trustworthy, unfortunately." Nga MAL larmu oer!!! "I TRUSTED you!!!" Lu tsatsamsiyu le’awa hapxìtu tsamponguä a mal lu moer. "That warrior is the only member of the war party that we both trust." (Na'viteri 2012-1-22)

masat [?ma.sat] (N) breastplate (armor). ? (Na'viteri 2011-8-3).

maw [maw] (Adp–) after (time). ? maw hìkrr ayoe tìyätxaw "we will return after a short time" (Zenke).

mawey [ma.?w?j] (Adj) calm. ? ngari txe’lan mawey livu "don't worry (about it)" (Fmawno).

mawey·pey [ma.?w?j.p?j] (Vin) be patient. ? (EDM).

maweypeyyu [ma.?w?j.p?j.ju] (N) one who is patient. ? (TH).

mawl [mawl] (N) half. ? Tsu’teyìl tolìng oer mawlit smarä, "Tsu’tey gave me a half of the prey" (Naviteri).

mawkrr [maw.kr??] (Adv) after (time), afterwards.

may’ [maj?] (Vtr) try, sample, evaluate, check out. ? Also has a modal use, may’ mivakto pa’lit! "try riding a direhorse!" (Na'viteri 2011-05-25).

kxu [mæ.?k?u] (Vtr) to interrupt, throw out of harmonious balance (not people; no negative connotation.)  ? Pol moläkxu ultxati "he interrupted the meeting" (Naviteri).

me’em [m?.???m] (Adj) harmonious.

me+ [m?] (M+) dual marker. ? meveng [< me+ + ’eveng] ([56] Jan 20).

mefo [?m?.fo] (Pron) they (= those two). (3rd person dual). ? ([57]).

mek [m?k] (Adj) empty. ? Can also be used metaphorically for something “empty” in the sense of having no valuable content. Ngeyä tsngal lumpe lu mek? Näk nì’ul ko! "Why is your cup empty? Drink up!" meka säfpìl "‘an empty/dumb idea" meka säplltxevi "an insipid/thoughtless comment" sämok amek "‘a useless suggestion" (Na'viteri 2012-2-29)

mekre [?m?k.??] (N) supplies.

melo [?m?.lo] (Adv) twice (? alo).

menga [m?.?a] (Pron) you (= the two of you) (2st person dual). ? ([58]).

mengenga [m?.??.?a] (Pron) you (2st person dual; deferential or ceremonial form); ? menga. ? ([59]).

meoauniaea [?m?.o.a.uni.a.??.a] (N) harmony, living at one with nature. ? (EDM).

mesrram [m?.s???.'am] (N, Adv) the day before yesterday, two days ago. (Na'viteri 2012-7-5)

mesrray [m?.s???.'aj] (N, Adv) the day after tomorrow, two days from now. (Na'viteri 2012-7-5)

meSrrmrrvam [m?.sr??.mr??.?vam] (N); (Adv) Thursday (of 2 weeks previous). ? (EDM).

meSrrmrrvay [m?.sr??.mr??.?vaj] (N); (Adv) Thursday (of 2 weeks out). ? (EDM).

meuia [m?.?u.i.a] (N) honor.  ? Oeru meuia "the honor is mine," an idiom for responding to thanks (Na’viteri).

meuianga’ [m?.?u.i.a.?a?] (Adj) honorable.

mevol [?m?.vol] (Num) (octal:) 20 (= decimal: 16). ? (Numerals).

meyam [m?.?jam] (Vtr) hug, embrace, hold in one’s arms. ? Ma sa’nu, oe txopu si. Meyam oeti! "Mommy, I’m scared. Hold me!" (Na'viteri 2011-10-31).

meyp [m?jp] (Adj) weak.

mi [mi] (Adv) yet, still (= as before). ? (MND).

miktsang [?mik.?a?] (N) earring. ? (Na'viteri 2011-8-3).

mikyun [?mik.jun] (N) ear.

mip [mip] (Adj) new. ? Mipa Zìsìt Lefpom Ngaru! [Happy New Year to You!] ([60] Dec 31).

[m?] (Adp+) in, on (about place and time). ? mì sokx "in the body" (or) "in the bodies" (LL); mì oeyä letrra tìrey "in my daily life" (CwT); ’Rrtamì "on Earth" (GMA).

fa [?m?.fa] (or) fa [m?.?fa] (N) inside; (Adv) inside.

ftxele [m?.?ft??.l?] (Adv) by the way, in this regard, related to this matter. ? From "in" + fìtxele "this matter". Mìftxele pori lu oer letsrantena fmawn a new piveng ngar "By the way, I have some important news I want to tell you about him" (Na'viteri 2011-9-4).

kam [m?.?kam] (Adp–) between.

mìn [m?n] (V) turn.

so [m?.?so] (Adv) away (position: "Stay away!"; cf. neto). ? ([61] Feb 15).

mll’an [ml??.??an] (Vtr) accept. ? Stxenutolìng oel futa lì’fyat leNa’vi poeru kivar. Mol’an nìprrte’ "I offered to teach her Na’vi. She accepted gladly" (Na'viteri 2011-9-24).

mllte [ml??.?t?] (V) agree.

moe [?mo.?] (Pron) we (= the two of us) (1st person dual exclusive). ? ([62]).

mohe [mo.h?] (Pron) we (= the two of us) (1st person dual exclusive; deferential or ceremonial form); ? moe. ? The inclusive form is ohe ngengasì [I and you] ([63]).

mok [mok] (Vtr) suggest.  ? Tsatsmukel alu Rini molok futa oe ngar muwäpivìntxu "Sister Rini over there suggested that I introduce myself" (Naviteri).

mokri [?mok.?i] (N) voice. ? Utral Aymokriyä "Tree of Voices" (Lemondrop).

mong [mo?] (Vtr) depend on, rely on, trust for protection. ? Mong prrnenìl futa sa’nul verewng nìtut. "The infant depends on her Mommy to look after her constantly." (Na'viteri 2012-7-5)

mowan [mo.?wan] (Adj) pleasing, enjoyable.

mrr [mr??] (Num) five. ? (Numerals).

mrrpxì [mr??.?p??] (N) one-fifth. ? (Naviteri).

mrrtrr [?mr??.tr??] (N) (5-day) workweek. ? (Na'viteri 2011-4-5).

mrrve [?mr??.v?] (Adj) fifth. ? (Ordinal number).

mrrvol [?mr??.vol] (Num) (octal:) 50 (= decimal: 40). ? (Numerals).

muiä [mu.?i.æ] (Adj) proper, fair, right, justified.

mun’i [mun.??i] (V) cut. ? "mun’i is the verb 'cut'" (CwT).

mune [?mu.n?] (Num) two. ? (Numerals).

muntrr [?mun.tr??] (N) weekend. ? (Na'viteri 2011-4-5).

muntrram [mun.tr??.?am] (N) last weekend. ? (Na'viteri 2011-4-5).

muntrray [mun.tr??.?aj] (N) next weekend. ? (Na'viteri 2011-4-5).

muntxa [mun.?t?a] (Adj) mated.

muntxa si [mun.?t?a si] (Vin) mate (with someone).

muntxatan [mun.?t?a.tan] (N) husband, male spouse.

muntxate [mun.?t?a.t?] (N) wife, female spouse.

muntxatu [mun.?t?a.tu] (N) spouse.

munge [?mu.??] (Vtr) take, bring.

mungwrr [mu?.?wr??] (Adp–) except. ? (MND).

muve [?mu.v?] (Adj) second. ? (Ordinal number).

muwìntxu [mu.w?n.?t?u] (Vtr) introduce, present (people or things.)  ? Oel muwivìntxu ngaru oeyä lertut "Let me present my colleague to you" (this is too stiff and formal to introduce someone, but is a useful example here); Tsatsmukel alu Rini molok futa oe ngar muwäpivìntxu "Sister Rini over there suggested that I introduce myself" (Naviteri).

N [n]

na [na] (Adp–) like, as. ? aylì’u na ayskxe mì te’lan "the words are like stones in my heart" (BtS); Fìtxon na ton alahe nìwotx pelun ke lu teng? [Why is this night not the same like all other nights?] (Why is).

naer [na.???] (N) (something to) drink.

nafì’u [na.f?.??u] (Adj) such.

na’rìng [?na?.???] (N) forest.

Na’vi [?na?.vi] (NP) the Na’vi, the People. ? kato te’lanä le-Na’vi "the rhythm of the hearts of the people" (ASG, Weaving Song); awpot [< ’awpot?] a Na’viru yomtìyìng "[choose] one, who will feed the People" (ASG, Hunt Song).

  1. Na’vi [n?.?na?.vi] (Adv) in the manner of the Na’vi. ? ngahu nìNa’vi pivängkxo "to chat with you in Na’vi" [= like the Na’vi] (TO); X nìNa’vi slu ’upe? "How do you say X in Na’vi?" [lit.: In Na’vi X becomes what?] ([64] Jan 21).
  2. leNa’vi [l?.?na?.vi] (Adj) Na’vi (as an attribute), 'Na’viean'. ? eylanur lì’fyayä leNa’vi "to the friends of the Na’vi language" (AMFP).

nam’ake [nam.'?a.k?] (Adv) confidently. ? qualifies how something is done. Tukeru poltxe Akwey nam’ake, omum futa ke tsun poe stivo. "Akwey spoke to Tuke confidently, knowing that she couldn’t refuse." (Na'viteri 2012-6-19)

nantang [?nan.ta?] (N) viperwolf (zool.). [Caniferratus costatus (striped armored wolf); more than 2 meters long, more than 1 m in height; land predator, hunts in small groups (ASG, p. 103/104)].

nang [na?] (Part) particle for surprise, exclamation, encouragement. Always sentence-final and appears with nìtxan (a collection).

nari [?na.?i] (N) eye.

nari si [?na.?i si] (Vin) watch out, be careful.

natkenong [nat.?k?.no?] (Conj) for example. ? derived from «na.t(ì).kenong» [65] (Na’viteri).

nawm [nawm] (Adj) great, noble.

nawmtu [?nawm.tu] (N) great person.

nayn [najn] (Num) nine, 9 (only as decimal figure).  ? (TH).

näk [næk] (Vtr) drink.

nän [næn] (Vin) decrease. (Na'viteri 2012-2-29)

nän . . . nän [næn . . . næn] (Idiom) the less . . . the less. ? Nän ftia, nän lu skxom a emza’u. "The less you study, the less chance you have of passing." Nän yom kxamtrr, ’ul ’efu ohakx kaym. "The less you eat at noon, the hungrier you’ll feel in the evening." (Na'viteri 2012-2-29)

ne [n?] (Adp–) to (direction). ? Terìran ayoe ayngane "We are walking your way" (ASG, Hunt Song); ne kllte! "get down!" (lit.: to the ground!; ASG). There are idiomatic uses, ke zasyup lì’Ona ne kxutu... "the lì’Ona will not perish to the enemy..." (Intentional Future Details).

ne’ìm [n?.???m] (Adv) back (direction).

ne [n?.?fæ] (Adv) up (direction).

nekll [n?.?kl??] (Adv) down (direction). ? Tìng nari nekll "See below" ([66]).

nekx [n?k?] (Vtr) burn, consume.

nemfa [?n?m.fa] (Adp–) into.

nemrey [n?m.???j] (Adv) in a fashion as if one’s life were at stake.

neto [n?.?to] (Adv) away (direction: "Go away!"; cf. mìso). ? ([67] Feb 15); neto rä’ä kivä! "don't go away!" (GMA).

netrìp [?n?t.??p] (Adv) luckily, happily.

new [n?w] (Vtr + subjunctive) want. ? Txo new nga rivey, oehu! "Come with me, if you want to live." (UGO); oe new ayngaru fyawivìntxu "I want to guide you" (AMFP); Oel new kivä = Oel new futa kivä [I want to go], Oel new futa Taronyu kivä "I want Taronyu to go" (CwT).

newomum [n?w.?o.mum] (Vin) be curious (want to know). ? [n??ewomum].

neympin [?n?jm.pin] (N) the color neyn.

neyn [n?jn] (Adj) light colored, "shades of white."

niä [ni.?æ] (Vtr) grab.

nikre [?nik.??] (N) hair.

nikroi [nik.??o.i] (N) hair ornament. ? From nikre "hair" + ioi "adornment" (Na'viteri 2011-8-3).

nim [nim] (Adj) timid, shy. ? Yerik lu swirä anim nìtxan "The hexapede is a very timid creature" (Na'viteri 2011-9-24).

ninan [?ni.nan] (Adv) by reading. Tìtusaronìri fte flivä, zene fko sivutx smarit ninan nìno "To succeed at hunting, you have to track your prey by reading (the forest) with attention to detail" (Na'viteri 2011-9-4).

nitram [nit.??am] (Adj) happy (used only for people, Na’vi or humans). (in contrast to ? lefpom).

nì- [n?] (M–) turns a noun, adjective or numeral into an adverb of modal sense ("in the manner of", "like a", "à la"). ? ngahu nìNa’vi pivängkxo "to chat with you in Na’vi" [= like the Na’vi] (TO); Katot taftxu oel nìean nìrim "I weave the rhythm in yellow and blue [lit.: blue and yellow]" (ASG, Weaving Song); nì’aw "only" [adv-one] (ASG, Hunt Song); nìaynga "(the same) like you" (AMFP).

nì’aw [n?.?aw] (Adv) only. ? ha nì’aw, pxan livu txo nì’aw oe ngari … "So only, only if I am worthy of you …" (ASG, Hunt Song); yom °matsat nì’aw [we eat only °matzah] (Why is).

’awtu [n?.??aw.tu] (Adv) alone (as one person).

’awve [n?.??aw.v?] (Adv) first(ly).

’en [n?.???n] (Adv) making an informed guess, acting on intuition. ? Naviteri.

’eoio [n?.???.o.i.o] (Adv) ceremoniously.

’eng [n?.????] (Adv) levelly, equally. ? Idiom za’u nì’eng "share an interest in common," tìrusol za’u ne fo nì’eng "they share an interest in singing" (Naviteri).

’eyng [n?.???j?] (Adv) back, in response, in answer.

’i’a [n?.??i.?a] (Adv) finally, at last.

’it [n?.??it] (Adv) small amount, a bit.

’o’ [n?.??o?] (Adv) enjoyably.

’ul [n?.??ul] (Adv) more. ? ngal tayìng ayoer(u) aylì’ut nì’ul "you will give us more words" (CwT).

’ul’ul [n?.'?ul.?ul] (Adv) increasingly, more and more. ? Frazìsìkrr pay kilvanä nän nì’ul’ul. "Every season the river dries up more and more." (Na'viteri 2012-2-29)

nìawnomum [n?.aw.?no.mum] (Adv) as you know, as is known. ? (AMFP).

nìayoeng [naj.?w??] (Adv) like us, as we do.

fe’ [n?.?f??] (Adv) badly. ? (Na'viteri 2011-07-24).

fkrr [n?.?fkr??] (Adv) lately.

fmokx [n?.?fmok?] (Adv) jealously, enviously. ? Txewìl tukrut Loakä narmìn nìfmokx "Txewì was eyeing Loak’s spear enviously" (Na'viteri 2011-10-31).

ftue [n?.?ftu.?] (Adv) easily.

ftxan [n?.?ft?an] (Adv) as. ? Used as nìftxan... na with adjective or adverb, oe lu nìftxan sìltsan na nga "I am as good as you." A pronoun or definite point of comparison may take the topical, ngari lu oe nìftxan sìltsan "I am as good as you" (As ADJ/ADV as N/PRN).

ftxavang [n?.?ft?a.va?] (Adv) passionately, with all heart. ? fìtxan nìftxavang "so passionately" (AMFP).

fwefwi [n?.?fw?.fwi] (Adv) by whistling, in a whistling manner. ? (Na'viteri 2011-9-24).

fya’o [n?.?fja.?o] (Adv) in a manner.

frakrr [n?.?f?a.kr??] (Adv) as always.

hawng [n?.?haw?] (Adv) too, excessively.

hay [n?.?haj] (Adv) next.

hek [n?.?h?k] (Adv) oddly, strangely. ? sentence adverbial only; nìfya’o a hek ‘in a way that’s strange’.

hoet [n?.'ho.?t] (Adv) widely, pervasively. ? Run fkol teylut nìhoet. "You find teylu everywhere." (Na'viteri 2012-6-19)

hona [n?.'ho.na] (Adv) endearingly, sweetly. ? Po ätxäle soli nìhona fìtxan, ke tsun oe stivo. "She asked so sweetly that I couldn’t refuse." (Na'viteri 2012-1-22)

nìk’ong [n?k.??o?] (Adv) slowly.

kanu [n?.?ka.nu] (Adv) intelligently, in a smart way.

nìk’ärìp [n?k.'?æ.??p] (Adv) steadily. ? lit.: ‘without letting it move’. (Na'viteri 2012-3-28)

nìkeftxo [n?.k?.?ft?o] (Adv) unfortunately, sadly. ? (EDM).

nìklonu [n?k.lo.'nu] (Adv) firmly, steadfastly, faithfully. ? lit.: ‘without releasing it’. (Na'viteri 2012-3-28)

nìkmar [n?k.?ma?] (Adv) in the right season, opportunely. ? Po tsap’alute soli nìkmar "He apologized at the right time" (Na'viteri 2011-10-31).

nìksman [n?k.?sman] (Adv) wonderfully. ? Fol lì’fyati awngeyä sar nìksman "They use our language wonderfully" (Na'viteri 2011-9-24).

nìktungzup [n?k.tu?.'zup] (Adv) carefully, firmly. ? lit.: ‘without letting it fall’. (Na'viteri 2012-3-28)

nìkxem [n?k??m] (Adv) vertically. ? (Na'viteri 2012-3-28)

lam [n?.?lam] apparently.

law [n?.?law] (Adv) clearly.

li [n?.?li] (Adv) in advance.

nìlkeftang [n?l.k?.?fta?] (Adv) continuously, without stopping.

nìltsan [n?l.??an] (Adv) well. ? Plltxe nga nìltsan! "You speak well!" (LL); Tìsteftxaw ngeyä flolä nìltsan! [Your examination succeeded well!] ([68] Jan 20).

lun [n?.?lun] (Adv) of course, logically, following common sense. ? (Na'viteri 2011-8-3).

mal [n?.'mal] (Adv) trustingly, without hesitation. ? Rini tsapohu holum nìmal nìwotx. "Rini left with that guy without thinking twice about it." (Na'viteri 2012-1-22)

meyp [n?.'m?jp] (Adv) weakly, loosely. ? (Na'viteri 2012-3-28)

mun [n?.?mun] (Adv) again. ? Ngaru irayo seiyi oe nìmun [I thank you again] ([69] Jan 07).

nìmwey [n?m.?w?j] (Adv) calmly, peacefully. ? (TH).

  1. hivahaw nìmwey [hi.?va.haw n?m.?w?j] (Idiom) “goodnight”. ? (when it’s bedtime) (TH).

nìmweypey [n?m.?w?j.p?j] (Adv) patiently. ? (EDM).

nìn [n?n] (Vtr) look at.

nìNa’vi ? Na’vi.

nän [n?.'næn] (Adv) less. ? Rutxe wivem nìnän. "Please fight less." Ayhapxìtu ponguä txopu si nìnän takrra Va’rul pxekutut lätxayn. "The members of the group are less afraid since Va’ru defeated three of the enemy." (Na'viteri 2012-2-29)

nän [n?.'næ.næn] (Adv) decreasingly, less and less. ? Fralo a taron, oeyä ’itan txopu si nìnänän. "Each time he hunts, my son becomes less and less afraid." (Na'viteri 2012-2-29)

no [n?.?no] (Adv) in detail, thoroughly.

ngay [n?.??aj] (Adv) truly. ? Oeyä swizaw nìngay tivakuk "Let my arrow strike true" (ASG, Hunt Song).

ngong [n?.??o?] (Adv) lethargically, lazily. ? (Na'viteri 2011-10-31).

nìolo [n?.o.'lo?] (Adv) (together) as members of a clan. (Na'viteri 2012-6-19)

prrte’ [n?.?pr??.t??] (Adv) gladly.  ? Nìprrte’ "with pleasure," and idiom for responding to thanks (Na’viteri).

pxi [n?.?p?i] (Adv) especially, pointedly, unambiguously. ? (EDM).

pxim [n?.?p?im] (Adv) erectly, uprightly.

rangal [n?.??a?.al] (Adv) "I wish, oh that" indicating counterfactual wishes, followed by a verb in the imperfect subjunctive for a present counterfactual, the perfect subjunctive for a past counterfactual (a collection).

slele [n?.?sl?.l?] Adv by swimming. ? tsun fko tsatsengene kivä nìslele fu fa fwa ikranit makto nì’aw, "you can only get there by swimming or riding an ikran" (Naviteri).

nìso’ha [n?so?ha] (Adv) enthusiastically. (Na'viteri 2012-6-19)

nìsoaia [n?.so.'a.i.a] (Adv) (together) as members of a family. (Na'viteri 2012-6-19)

syep [n?.'sj?p] (Adv) tightly, in an iron grip. ? lit.: ‘like a trap’. (Na'viteri 2012-3-28)

ronsrel [n?.??on.s??l] (Adv) in/by imagination. ? oe pxìm pängkxo ngahu nìronsrel "I often talk with you in my imagination" (Naviteri).

sngä’i [n?.?s?æ.?i] (Adv) originally, at first. ? Nìsngä’i fmawnit fo narmew wivan, slä nì’i’a frapor lolonu "They originally wanted to hide the news, but in the end they revealed it everyone" (Na'viteri 2011-10-31).

sngum [n?.?s?um] (Adv) worryingly, fretfully. ? Naviteri.

steng [n?.?st??] (Adv) similarly. ? Tseyk tswamayon fa ikran srekrr; tafral fmoli fìkem sivi fa toruk nìsteng "Jake flew with an ikran before; therefore he tried to do it with a toruk in a similar fashion" (Na'viteri 2011-9-24).

sti [n?.?sti] (Adv) angrily.

sung [n?.?su?] (Adv) besides, additionally, furthermore.

swey [n?.?sw?j] (Adv) optimally, best. ? (EDM).

syayvi [n?.?sjaj.vi] (Adv) by chance or coincidence.

syen [n?.?sj?n] (Adv) lastly, finally.  ? Take care to distinguish from nì’i’a, "at last."

tam [n?.?tam] (Adv) enough (after an adjective).

teng [n?.?t??] (Adv) too, likewise, as well. ? Nìaynga oe perey nìteng "Like you, I too am waiting" (AMFP).

tengfya [n?.?t??.fja] (Adv) in the same way.

trrtrr [n?.?tr??.tr??] (Adv) daily, regularly.  ? Nga pesuhu käteng nìtrrtrr? "who do you usually hang out with?" (Naviteri).

tut [n?.?tut] (Adv) continually.

txan [n?.?t?an] (Adv) very much; of time, long (in duration). ? oe new nìtxan ayngaru fyawivìntxu "I want very much to guide you" (AMFP); ngaru irayo seiyi oe nìtxan [I thank you very much] ([70] Jan 20). Fwa oel fìtìkangkemvit sngeykivä’i krrnolekx nìtxan "me starting this project took a long time" (Na’viteri).

nìtxay [n?t?aj] (Adv) horizontally. ? (Na'viteri 2012-3-28)

txi [n?.?t?i] (Adv) hurriedly, in a frenzied way ? (Na'viteri 2011-10-31).

txiluke [n?.?t?i.lu.k?] (Adv) unhurriedly, leisurely ? Tsun oe ngahu tsatsengene kivä, slä nulnew futa sivop oeng nìtxiluke "I can go there with you, but I prefer to travel leisurely" (Na'viteri 2011-10-31).

tsim [n?.??im] (Adv) originally, in an original way, with originality. ? Frakrr po fpìl nìtsim nìwotx "Her thinking is always completely original" (Na'viteri 2011-10-31).

tsyìl [n?.'?j?l] (Adv) by climbing. ? (Na'viteri 2012-1-22)

tsìsyì [n?.???.sj?] (Adv) by whispering, in a whisper. ? Pol tstxoti oeyä poltxeie nìtsìsyì "He whispered my name, I’m happy to say" (Na'viteri 2011-9-24).

vingkap [n?.?vi?.kap] (Adv) by the way, incidentally. ? Nìvingkap ngeyä tsmukanur alu Ralu lu fpom srak? "Oh by the way, how’s your brother Ralu?" (Na'viteri 2011-9-4).

wan [n?.?wan] Adv secretly; in hiding, by hiding. ? samsiyu perey nìwan, "the hunters lie in wait, prepared to ambush" (Naviteri).

nìwawe [n?.wa.?w?] (Adv) meaningfully, significantly.

[n?.?wæ] (Adv) on the contrary, conversely.

nìwäte [n?.wæ.?t?] (Adv) disagreeably, begrudgingly. ? Naviteri.

win [n?.?win] (Adv) fast.

wok [n?.?wok] (Adv) loudly. ? (Na'viteri 2011-9-24).

wotx [n?.?wot?] (Adv) all (of), completely, in toto. ? Ayftozä [sic!] lefpom ayngaru nìwotx! "Happy Holidays to You All!" (OoOA); Ayeylanur oeyä sì eylanur lì’fyayä leNa’vi nìwotx "To all my friends and friends of the Na’vi language" (AMFP).

yll [n?.'jl??] (Adv) communally, in a communal manner. ? Fol tsnganit pxìmolun’i nìyll. "They shared the meat with the entire clan." Fìteyluri ke narmew Va’ru yivom nìyll. "Va’ru didn’t want to share this teylu with the Omatikaya." (Na'viteri 2012-1-22)

yo [n?.'jo?] (Adv) perfectly, flawlessly. ? Txo ke nìyo’ tsakrr nìyol. "Proverb] ‘If you can’t be flawless, at least be brief." (Na'viteri 2012-1-9)

zawnong [n?.?zaw.no?] (Adv) safely.

nong [no?] (V) follow, proceed after.

nokx [nok?] (Vtr) give birth to.  ? Sa’nokìl oeyä tsmuket amip nolokx trram "mom gave birth to my new sister yesterday" (Naviteri).

nuä [?nu.æ] (Adp+) beyond. ? Awnga kelku si nuä ayram alusìng "We live beyond the flying mountains" (Na'viteri 2011-10-31).

nulkrr [nul.?kr??] (Adv) longer (time).

nul·new [nul.?n?w] (Vtr) prefer, would rather. ? ke lu kawtu a nulnivew oe pohu tireapivängkxo "There's nobody I'd rather commune with" (Lemondrop).

nume [?nu.m?] (V) learn. ? nume "learn" (CwT).

numeyu [?nu.m?.ju] (N) student.

numtseng [?num.???] (N) school.

numtsengvi [?num.???.vi] (N) classroom, division of a school.

numultxa [nu.mul.'t?a] (N) class (for instruction). ? Mì Siätll a numultxari lì’fyayä leNa’vi, sìlpey oe slìyevu nga numultxatu! "I hope you’ll participate in the upcoming Na’vi class in Seattle!" (Na'viteri 2012-7-5)

numultxatu [nu.mul.'t?a.tu] (N) classmate, member of a class. (Na'viteri 2012-7-5)

nutx [nut?] (Adj) thick. ? Tsun Txilte pamrelit ivinan; tafral pukot anutx munge fratseng "Txilte knows how to read; therefore she brings a thick book wherever she goes" (Na'viteri 2011-11-30).

NG (= G) [?]

nga [?a] (Pron) you (2nd person singluar). ? hu nga (or) ngahu "with you", Plltxe nga nìltsan! "You speak well!" (LL); Eywa ngahu "Eywa be with you" (FL).

  1. ngal [?al] (Agentive:) you. ? Ngal oeyä ’upxaret … fpole’ [You have sent my message] ([71] Jan 20).
  2. nge [???.jæ] (Genitive:) your. ? ngeyä fahew akewong "your alien smell" (TO); tawskìp ngeyä "your ship [= space ship]" (UGO).
  3. ngar [?a?] (or) ngaru [??a.?u] (Dative:) to you. ? Ngaru lu fpom srak? "Do you have a sense of well-being?" (VF); Fyape fko syaw ngar? "What's your name?" [lit.: How does one call (to) you?] (Reflexives).
  4. ngati [??a.ti] (Patientive:) you. ? Oel ngati kameie "I See you" (UGO).
  5. ngari [??a.?i] (Topic:) you, as for you. ? pxan livu txo nì’aw oe ngari "only if I am worthy of you" (ASG, Hunt Song).

nga’ [?a?] (Vtr) contain.  ? na’rìngìl nga’ pxaya ioangit "the forest contains many animals" (Na'viteri 2011-05-05).

ngam [?am] (N) echo. ? Fìslärmì tsun fko stivawm ngamit apxay. "You can hear a lot of echoes in this cave." (Na'viteri 2012-1-9)

ngampam ['?am.pam] (N) rhyme. ? (Na'viteri 2012-1-9)

ngampam si [?ampam si] (Vin) rhyme. ? Melì’u alu mungwrr sì nìfkrr ngampam si. "The words mungwrr and nìfkrr rhyme." New Rini sì Ralu muntxa slivu, slä tì’efumì oeyä, ngampam ke si. "Rini and Ralu want to marry, but I feel they’re not compatible." (Na'viteri 2012-1-9)

ngawng [?aw?] (N) worm (zool.).

ngay [?aj] (Adj) true. ? oeyä txe’lan livu ngay "let my heart be true" (ASG, Hunt Song).

ngaytxoa [?aj.?t?o.a] (Idiom) forgive me. ? acknowledgment of guilt and regret

ngäng [?æ?] (N) stomach.

ngäzìk [??æ.z?k] (Adj) difficult, hard.

ngenga [??.??a] (Pron) you (2nd person singular, honorific form); ? nga. ? ([72]).

ngep [??p] (N) navel. ? (Na'viteri 2012-3-28)

ngeyn [??jn] (Adj) tired.

ngian [?i.?an] (Adv) however.

ngim [?im] (Adj) long (about space). ? ngima kilvan (or) kilvan angim "long river" (LL).

ngimpup [?im.?pup] (N) length.

ngong [?o?] (Adj) lethargic, lacking sufficient energy, lazy. ? Ftue lu fwa taron ngonga ioangit to fwa taron pumit a lu walak sì win "It’s easier to hunt lethargic animals than to hunt perky, speedy ones" (Na'viteri 2011-10-31).

ngop [?op] (V) create. ? "ngop 'create'" (Auxilary verb SI).

ngopyu [??op.ju] (N) creator.

ngul [?ul] (Adj) drab-colored, grey.

ngulpin [??ul.pin] (N) the color ngul.

nguway [??u.waj] (N) howl, viperwolf cry.

O [o]

oe [?o.?] (Pron) I (1st person singular). ? livu win sì txur oe zene "I must be fast and strong" (ASG, Hunt Song); tsun oe ngahu nìNa’vi pivängkxo "[I am] able to chat with you in Na’vi" (TO).

  1. oel [w?l] (Agentive:) I. ? Oel ngati kameie "I See you" (UGO); Katot täftxu oel "I weave the rhythm" (ASG, Weaving Song); oel pot ke spaw "I don't believe him" ([73] Jan 21).
  2. oe [?w?.jæ] (Genitive:) my. ? Oeyä swizaw … oeyä tukrul … oeyä txe’lan … "My arrow … my spear … my heart." (ASG, Hunt Song); ma oeyä eylan "my friends" (AMFP).
  3. oer [w??] (or) oeru [?w?.?u] (Dative:) to me. ? oeru prrte’ lu "it's a pleasure [to me]" (TO); layu oeru ye’rin sìltsana fmawn "I will soon have good news" (AMFP); fpole’ ayngal oer a ’upxaret "[I have heard] the message you sent me" (AMFP); Nga yawne lu oer "I love you" ([74] Jan 21); Oeru syaw fko … "My name is …" [lit.: They call (to) me …] (Reflexives).
  4. oeti [?w?.ti] (Patientive:) me. ? Spivaw oeti rutxe "Please believe me (AMFP).
  5. oeri [?w?.?i] (Topic:) I, as for me. ? oeri "I-top" (LL).

oeng [w??] (Pron) we, you and I, the two of us (1st person dual inclusive). ? oeng ’awsiteng mivakto "let's [= let the two of us] ride together" (Lemondrop).

  1. oengal [w?.?al] (Agentive:) we, the two of us. ? oeng ([75] Jan 21).
  2. oengat [w?.?at] (or) oengati [w?.?a.ti] (Patientive:) us, the two of us. ? oengat(i) ([76] Jan 21).

oeyk [o.??jk] (N) cause. ? related to taweyk(a) "because"; see also lun and talun(a) (Some Conjunctions and Adverbs).

oeyk·tìng [o.??jk.t??] (V) explain (why).

ohakx [o.?hak?] (Adj) hungry. ? (EDM).

ohe [?o.h?] (Pron) I (1st person singular; deferential or ceremonial form); ? oe. ? ([77]).

‹ol› [o.l] (Inf 1) to indicate perfective aspect ‹pfv›. ? tolaron "have hunted" (LL); Neytiril yerikit tolaron "Neytiri hunted a hexapede" (MSNBC).

olo’ [ol.?o?] (N) clan.

olo’eyktan [o.lo?.??jk.tan] (N) clan leader.

Omatikaya [omati.?ka.ja] (NP) the Omaticaya clan of the Na’vi.

omum [o.?mum] (Vtr) know (not used for people; see smon). ? omum oel futa … "I know that …" (AMFP). In any inflected or derived form, the accent shifts to the o, so ivomum oe new (Canon Omum).

ontu [?on.tu] (N) nose. ? ontu "nose" (LL).

ontsang [?on.?a?] (N) nose ring. ? (Na'viteri 2011-8-3).

P [p]

pa’li [?pa?.li] (N) direhorse (zool.).

pa’o [?pa.?o] (N) side.

pak [pak] (Part) particle for disparagement.

palulukan [?pa.lu.?lu.kan] (N) thanator (zool.).

pam [pam] (N) sound.

pamrel [pam.???l] (N) writing.

pamrel si [pam.???l si] (Vin) write. ? Furia nì’Ìnglìsì pamrel sivi, oeru txoa livu "I'm sorry for writing in English" forum post.

pamrelfya [pam.???l.fja] (N) spelling.

pamtseo [?pam.??.o] (N) music. ? "pamtseo = music", "pamtseotu = musician" ([78]).

pamtseotu [?pam.??.o.tu] (N) musician. ? "pamtseotu = musician" ([79]).

pan [pan] (N) third, one third. ? Tsu’teyìl tolìng oer panit smarä, "Tsu’tey gave me a third of the prey" (Na'viteri 2011-2-20).

pate [?pa.t?] (V) get to a place, arrive.

pawm [pawm] (V) ask.

pay [paj] (N) water, liquid.

payfya [?paj.fja] (N) stream.

payìva [?paj.?.va] (N) drop of water. ? (Na'viteri 2011-4-1).

paynga’ [?paj.?a?] (Adj) moist, damp, humid.

payoang [paj.?o.a?] (N) fish.

hem [?pæ.h?m] (Vin) arrive. ? ke pamähängem kea tì’eyng "no answer has arrived" (AMFP).

nu [?pæ.nu] (N) promise.

nu·tìng [?pæ.nu.t??] (V) promise (a thing to someone).

pängkxo [pæ?.?k?o] (Vin) chat, converse, have a conversation. ? tsun oe ngahu nìNa’vi pivängkxo "[I am] able to chat with you in Na’vi" (TO); pängkxo "chat, converse" (CwT).

tsì [?pæ.??] (N) badge.

pe+ [p?] (M+) what (connected to a noun).

pe’un [?p?.?un] (Vtr) decide. ? tsakrr paye’un sweya fya’ot "then I will decide the best way" (AMFP).

pefnel [p?.?fn?l] (Q) which kind (alternative form: fnepe). ? (EDM).

pefya [p?.?fja] (Q) how (alternative form: fyape).

pehem [p?.?h?m] (Q) what (action) (alternative form: kempe).

pehrr [p?.?hr??] (Q) when (time) (alternative form: krrpe).

pekxinum [p?.'k?i.num] (Q) how tight/loose?. ? Ngal molay’ pxawpxunit Loakä a krr pekxinum? "When you tried on Loak’s armband, how tight was it?" (Na'viteri 2012-7-5)

pe’u [p?.?l?.?u] (Q) what (word, utterance) (alternative form: lì’upe).

pelun [p?.?lun] (Q) why (alternative form: lumpe). ? Fìtxon na ton alahe nìwotx pelun ke lu teng? [Why is this night not the same like all other nights?] (Why is).

peng [p??] (Vtr) tell, inform. ? ayngaru payeng "I will let you know" (AMFP). Takes futa for report clause, new oe mengaru piveng futa ... forum post.

peseng [p?.?s??] (Q) where (alternative form: tsengpe).

peslosnep [p?.slo.'sn?p] (Q) what width? how wide?; ? slosneppe. (Na'viteri 2012-6-19)

pesu [p?.?su] (Q) who (alternative form: tupe).

peu [p?.?u] (Pron) what (thing) (alternative form: ’upe). ? "The other form [of ’upe] is peu, stress on the second." ([80] Jan 21).

pewn [p?wn] (N) neck.

pey [p?j] (V) wait, wait for. ? tìfyawìntxuri oeyä perey aynga nìwotx "you are all waiting for my guidance" (AMFP); oe perey "I am waiting" (AMFP); oe tsun pivey [I can wait] (CwT).

peyä ? po.

piak [pi.?ak] (Adj) open. ? Of the sky, no clouds, completely clear" (Na'viteri 2011-05-05).

piak si [pi.?ak si] (Vin) open.

pil [pil] (N) facial stripe.

pizayu [?pi.za.ju] (N) ancestor.

pìmtxan [p?m.?t?an] (Q) how much (alternative form: hìmtxampe).

wopx [p?.?wop?] (N) cloud.

pìwopxtsyìp [p?wop??j?p] (N) nebula. ? (Na'viteri 2012-3-31)

pllngay [pl??.??aj] (Vin) admit. ? (Na'viteri 2011-07-24).

plltxe [pl??.?t??] (V) speak (perfective form: poltxe [< *pollltxe]). ? Plltxe nga nìltsan! "You speak well!" (LL); Oe new pivlltxe (or:) Oel new futa pivlltxe [I want to speak] (CwT); Poltxe Eytukan … "Eytukan said …" ([81] Jan 21).

po [po] (Pron) he/she (3rd person singular). ? pohu "with [whom]" (Lemondrop); Tivìran po ayoekip … "Let her walk among us …" ([82] Jan 09).

  1. pe [?p?.jæ] (Pron) his/her (3st person singular). ? peyä "his" (LL).
  2. poru [?po.?u] (Dative:) to him/her. ? lu poru mesyal a ikran [an ikran, who has two wings (lit.: to whom are …) ] ([83] Feb 18).
  3. pot [pot] (Patientive:) him/her. ? oel pot ke spaw "I don't believe him" ([84] Jan 21).

poan [po.?an] (Pron) he (3rd person singular masculine).

poe [po.??] (Pron) she (3rd person singular feminine).

polpxay [pol.?p?aj] (Q) how many (alternative form: holpxaype).

pom [pom] (Vtr) kiss.

pongu [?po.?u] (N) group of people, party.

prrku ['p???.ku] (N) womb. ? from prrnen + kelku. (Na'viteri 2012-3-28)

prrnen [?pr??.n?n] (N) infant, baby. ? (MND).

prrnesyul [?pr??.n?.sjul] (N) bud (of a flower). ? (MND).

prrte’ [?pr??.t??] (Adj) pleasurable (of an activity). ? oeru prrte’ lu … "it's a pleasure [to me] …" (TO).

prrwll [?pr??.wl??] (N) moss.

puk [puk] (N) book (English loanword).

puktsyìp [?puk.?j?p] (N) booklet, pamphlet.

pukap [?pu.kap] (Num) six. ? (Numerals).

pum [pum] (N) possession, thing possessed.  ? Used as a "dummy noun" with the genitive pronouns to form "disjunctive possessives" — that is, words like "mine," "yours," "theirs." Kelku ngeyä lu tsawl; pum oeyä lu hì’i "your house is large; mine is small" (Na’viteri). Pum ngeyä "yours," an idiom for responding to thanks, "the thanks belong to you" (Na’viteri).

pup [pup] (Adj) short (physical length).

pupxì [pu.?p??] (N) one-sixth. ? (Naviteri).

puve [?pu.v?] (Adj) sixth. ? (Ordinal number).

puvol [?pu.vol] (Num) (octal:) 60 (= decimal: 48). ? (Numerals).

PX [p?]

pxan [p?an] (Adj) worthy. ? pxan livu txo nì’aw oe ngari "only if I am worthy of you" (ASG, Hunt Song). Ke pxan "(I'm) not worthy," an idiom for replying to a compliment (Na’viteri).

pxasìk [?p?a.s?k] (Idiom) Screw that! No way! (vulgar). ? pxasik [sic!] "screw that!" (UGO); pxasìk "Screw it! No way!" (Lemondrop).

pxasul [?p?a.sul] (Adj) fresh, appealing as food.

pxaw [p?aw] (Adp–) around.

pxawpa [?p?aw.pa] (N) perimeter, circumference, border.

pxawpxun [?p?aw.p?un] (N) armband. ? Pori pxunpxaw lu pxawpxun "Around his arm is an armband" (Na'viteri 2011-8-3).

pxay [p?aj] (Adj) many.

pxe+ [p??] (M+) trial marker. ? pxeveng [< pxe+ + ’eveng] ([85] Jan 20); pxesìpawm(ìri) [three questions] (Numerals).

pxefo [p??.fo] (Pron) they (= the three of them) (3st person trial). ? ([86]).

pxel [p??l] (Adp–) like, as.

pxelo [?p??.lo] (Adv) thrice, three times (? alo).

pxen [p??n] (N) (item of) functional clothing. ? (Na'viteri 2011-8-3).

pxenga [p??.?a] (Pron) you (= the three of you) (2st person trial). ? ([87]).

pxengenga [p??.??.?a] (Pron) you (= the three of you) (2st person trial; deferential or ceremonial form); ? pxenga. ? ([88]).

pxesrram [p??.s???.'am] (N, Adv) three days ago. (Na'viteri 2012-7-5)

pxesrray [p??.s???.'aj] (N, Adv) three days from now. (Na'viteri 2012-7-5)

pxeSrrmrrvam [p??.sr??.mr??.?vam] (N); (Adv) Thursday (of 3 weeks previous). ? (EDM).

pxeSrrmrrvay [p??.sr??.mr??.?vaj] (N); (Adv) Thursday (3 weeks out). ? (EDM).

pxevol [?p??.vol] (Num) (octal:) 30 (= decimal: 24). ? (Numerals).

pxey [p??j] (Num) three. ? (Numerals).

pxeyve [?p??j.v?] (Adj) third. ? (Ordinal number).

pxi [p?i] (Adj) sharp.

pxim [p?im] (Adj) erect, upright.

pximaw [p?i.?maw] (Adv) right after. ? (EDM).

pxiset [p?i.?s?t] (Adv) right now. ? (EDM).

pxisre [p?i.?s??] (Adp+) right before. ? (EDM).

pxiswawam [p?i.swaw.?am] (Adv) just a moment ago. ? (EDM).

pxiswaway [p?i.swaw.?aj] (Adv) in just a second from now. ? (EDM).

pxiye’rìn [p?i.?j??.??n] (Adv) immediately (but not as soon as pxiswaway). ? (EDM).

pxìm [p??m] (Adv) often. ? Nga za’u fìtseng pxìm srak? "Do you come here often?" (Lemondrop).

pxìmun’i [p??.mun.'?i] (Vtr 23) divide, cut into parts. ? Nìtrrtrr pxìmun’i samsiyul ayswizawit kutuä alawnätxayn snokip nì’eng. "Warriors typically share the arrows of their defeated enemies among themselves." (Na'viteri 2012-1-22)

pxoe [p?o.?] (Pron) we (= the three of us) (1st person trial exclusive). ? ([89]).

pxoeng [p?o.??] (Pron) we (= the three of us) (1st person trial inclusive). ? ([90]).

pxohe [p?o.h?] (Pron) we (= the three of us) (1st person trial exclusive; deferential or ceremonial form); ? pxoe. ? The inclusive form is ohe mengengasì [I and (the two of) you] ([91]).

pxor [p?o?] (Vin) explode.

pxorpam [?p?o?.pam] (N) ejective consonant.

pxun [p?un] (N) arm.

pxuntil [?p?un.til] (N) elbow.

R [?]

-r [?] (M) dative suffix (in case of the word ending on a vowel) [allomorphs: -ru, -ur ]. ? fpole’ ayngal oer a ’upxaret "[I have heard] the message you have sent me" (AMFP); Eytukanìl Neytirir yerikit teykolaron "Eytukan made Neytiri hunt a hexapede" ([92] Feb 17).

ral [?al] (N) meaning. ? ralit faylì’uä oel ke tslivam "I don’t understand the meaning of these words" (Na'viteri 2011-05-25).

ral·peng [?al.?p??] (V) interpret.

ram [?am] (N) mountain.

ramtsyìp [??am.?j?p] (N) hill.

ramunong [?a.?mu.no?] (N) well. ? Ayvitrayä Ramunong "Well of Souls".

rangal [??a?.al] (V) wish.

raspu’ [?a.?spu?] (N) leggings (used in war). ? (Na'viteri 2011-8-3).

rawke [??aw.k?] (Idiom) alarm cry, call to defense.

rawm [?awm] (N) lightning (general term). (Na'viteri 2012-7-5)

rawmpxom ['?awm.p?om] (N) thunder and lightning. (Na'viteri 2012-7-5)

rawn [?awn] (Vtr) replace, substitute’. The syntax for “replace A with B” or “substitute B for A” is: rawn A-ti fa B. ? Rolawn oel pa’lit fa ikran, ulte makto set ikranit frakrr. "I replaced my direhorse with a banshee, and now I ride a banshee all the time." (Na'viteri 2012-1-9)

’ä [?æ.??æ] (Part) to form a negative imperative. ? txopu rä’ä si "don't be afraid" (from the film).

re’o [???.?o] (N) head.

rel [??l] (N) image, picture. ? "rel = image, picture" ([93]).

reltseo [???l.??.o] (N) visual art. ? "reltseo = visual art" ([94]).

reltseotu [???l.??.o.tu] (N) artist. ? "reltseotu = artist" ([95]).

renten [???n.t?n] (N) goggles. ? (Na'viteri 2011-8-3).

renu [???.nu] (N) pattern.

renu ngampamä ['??.nu '?am.pa.mæ] (N) rhyme scheme. ? Fìwayri hìnoa renut ngampamä ke tsängun oe tslivam. "I’m afraid I can’t understand the intricate rhyme scheme of this poem." (Na'viteri 2012-1-9)

reng [???] (Adj) shallow.

rewon [???.won] (N); (Adv) morning. ? (TH).

rewonam [??.wo.?nam] (Adv) yesterday morning. ? (Txe'lanit Hivawl...).

rewonay [??.wo.?naj] (Adv) tomorrow morning. ? oeng rewonay ’awsiteng tivaron ko, "let’s you and I go hunting together tomorrow morning" (Naviteri).

rey [??j] (Vin) live. ? Txo new nga rivey, oehu! "Come with me, if you want to live!" (UGO); ke rey a tute "person who doesn't live / isn't alive" ([96]).

rey’eng [??j.????] (N) balance of life. ? (EDM).

reypay [???j.paj] (N) blood.

-ri [?i] (M) topic suffix (in case of the word ending on a vowel) [allomorph: -ìri ]. ? oeri "I-top" (LL), pxan livu txo nì’aw oe ngari "only if I am worthy of you" (ASG, Hunt Song).

rikx [?ik?] (Vin) move, shift position.

rim [?im] (Adj) yellow. ? Katot taftxu oel nìean nìrim "I weave the rhythm in yellow and blue [lit.: blue and yellow]" (ASG, Weaving Song).

rina’ [?i.?na?] (N) seed.

riti [??i.ti] (N) stingbat (zool.).

’ìr [???.???] (N) reflection. ? Oeri payìl tìng rì’ìrit keyä "My face is reflected in the water" (Na'viteri 2011-9-24).

’ìr si [???.??? si] (Vin) reflect, imitate. ? Rì’ìr rä’ä sivi tsmuktur! "Don’t imitate your sibling!" (Na'viteri 2011-9-24).

rìk [??k] (N) leaf.

rìkean [???k.?.an] (Adj) ean of leaves, i.e., green (Naviteri).

rìn [??n] (N) wood. ? (Na'viteri 2012-1-22)

ro [?o] (Adp+) at (purely locative). ? As in ro fäpa "at the top", ro helku "at home" (all adpositions).

ro’a ['?o.?a] (Vin 12) be impressive, inspire awe or respect. ? Toruk Makto polähem a fì’u rolo’a nìtxan Omatikayaru. "The arrival of Toruk Makto made a great impression on the Omatikaya." (Na'viteri 2012-3-28)

rofa [??o.fa] (Adp–) beside, alongside.

rol [?ol] (V) sing. ? rerol ayoe "we are singing" (ASG, Hunt Song).

ronsem [??on.s?m] (N) mind.

ronsrel [??on.s??l] (N) something imagined. ? ayronsrel peyä hängek nìtxan, "his imaginings are (unpleasantly) weird" (Naviteri).

ronsrelngop [??on.s??l.?op] (Vtr) imagine, envision. ? oel ronsrelngop futa Eywevengit tok, "I imagine that I’m on Pandora" (Naviteri).

-ru [?u] (M) dative suffix (in case of the word ending on a vowel) [allomorphs: -r, -ur ]. ? layu oeru ye’rin sìltsana fmawn "I will soon have good news" (AMFP); ayngaru seiyi irayo "I thank you" (AMFP).

run [?un] (Vtr) find, discover. ? ... Prrton a kxeyeyti rolun "... Prrton, who found the mistake" ([97]).

  1. Rolun! [?o.?lun] (Idiom) "Eureka! I found it!".

rurur [?u.'?u?] (N) water that is aerated while flowing among the rocks of a very gradually sloping stream. ? (non-countable). (Na'viteri 2012-7-5)

rusey [?u.?s?j] (N) living thing; (Adj) alive, living.

rutxe [?u.?t??] (Idiom) please. ? Spivaw oeti rutxe "Please believe me" (AMFP).

S [s]

sa’nok [?sa?.nok] (N) mother.

sa’nu [?sa?.nu] (N) mommy.

sa’sem [?sa?.s?m] (N) parents (cannot be used for one parent).

salew [sa.?l?w] (V) proceed, go. ? Used in the idiom for stating age, ngari solalew polpxaya zìsìt "how old are you?" Oeri solalew zìsìt apxevol "I'm 24 years old. Solalew may reduce to solew (Naviteri).

san [san] (M–) to indicate the beginning of a quote; if the speaker continues to say something after the end of the cited phrase, the quote has to be concluded using sìk. ? Poltxe Eytukan san oe kayä sìk, slä oel pot ke spaw "Eytukan said he would go [lit.: Eytukan said ‹quote.in› I will go ‹quote.out›], but I don't believe him" ([98] Jan 21).

sang [sa?] (Adj) warm.

sar [sa?] (Vtr) use. ? tsat sayar oel nìltsan "I will use it well" (Sar, Fìtxan).

sawtute ? tawtute.

sayrìp [?saj.??p] (Adj) handsome, good-looking (primarily of males). ? (Forum post).

ipu [sæ.'i.pu] (N) a particular instance of being humorous—for example, a joke. ? ’ipu. ? Oeru txoa livu, ma ’eylan. Rä’ä stivi. Lu hì’ia sä’ipu nì’aw. "I’m sorry, friend. Don’t be angry. It was just a small bit of humor." (Na'viteri 2012-1-9, Na'viteri 2012-2-29)

’o [?sæ.?o] (N) tool, utensil.  ? Na’viri txina sä’o tìtusaronä lu tsko swizaw "for the Na’vi the bow and arrow is the main hunting tool" (Naviteri).

flä [sæ.'flæ] (N) success (an instance of succeeding). ? (Na'viteri 2012-7-5)

fngo [sæ.'f?o?] (N) requirement, demand. ? Ngeyä faysäfngo’ìl nìwotx steykerängi oeti nìhawng. "All these demands of yours are making me exceedingly angry." (Na'viteri 2012-1-9)

fpìl [sæ.?fp?l] (N) idea, thought. ? txantsana aysäfpìl "excellent ideas" (Tag Question).

säftxu’u [sæ.ft?u.'l?.?u] (N) speech, oration. ? Fnivu! Säftxulì’uri ke tsun oe stivawm. "Hush! I can’t hear the speech." (Na'viteri 2012-6-19)

fyep [sæ.'fj?p] (N) handle. ? Indicates the part of an object where you hold it, e.g. the handle of a cup. (Na'viteri 2012-3-28)

kanom [sæ.'ka.nom] (N) something acquired, an acquisition, a possession. ? Tì’efumì oeyä, ngeyä fìsäkanom lu lehrrap ulte tsun ngati tìsraw seykivi. "In my opinion, this acquisition of yours is dangerous and can hurt you." (Na'viteri 2012-1-22)

sälätxayn [sæ.læ.'t?ajn] (N) defeat: an instance of defeat. ? Tsasälätxayn Na’viru srung soli nì’aw fte slivu txur nì’ul. "That defeat only helped the People become stronger." Tsun awnga kelku sivi nì’eng Sawtutehu mì atxkxe awngeyä. "We can share our land with the Skypeople." (Na'viteri 2012-1-22)

mok [sæ.'mok] (N) a suggestion, a concrete instance of suggesting; ? mok. ? Ngeyä sämokìri akosman seiyi oe irayo. "Thanks for that excellent suggestion(of yours)." (Na'viteri 2012-1-22, Na'viteri 2012-2-29)

sämyam [sæm.?jam] (N) hug, embrace; ? meyam. ? Sämyamìl poru wayìntxu futa ngata lolu li txoa "A hug will show him that you’ve already forgiven him" (Na'viteri 2011-10-31).

nume [sæ.?nu.m?] (N) teaching, instruction; ? nume. ? sänume "teaching, instruction" (CwT).

numvi [sæ.?num.vi] (N) lesson. ? (EDM).

omum [sæ.?o.mum] (N) (peice of) information. ? Aysäomumìri lesar seiyi oe ngaru irayo nìtxan "Thanks very much for (all) this useful information" (Na'viteri 2011-9-24).

säplltxe [sæ.pl??.?t’?] (N) statement.

säplltxevi [sæ.pl??.?t’?.vi] (N) comment.

pom [sæ.?pom] (N) kiss. ? (Na'viteri 2011-10-31).

rawn [sæ.'?awn] (N) replacement, substitute, something that replaces something else. ? Fìpamtseoturi ke layu ftue fwa run fkol särawnit a tam. "It won’t be easy to find a satisfactory replacement for this musician." (Na'viteri 2012-1-9)

ro’a [sæ.'?o.?a] (N) feat, accomplishment, great deed. ? (Na'viteri 2012-3-28)

säro’a si [sæ?o?a si] (Vin) do great deeds. ? Txantstew säro’a si, fnawe’tu ke si. "A hero does great deeds, a coward does not." (Na'viteri 2012-3-28)

spxin [sæ.?sp?in] (N) disease, sickness; ? spxin. ? (MND, Na'viteri 2012-2-29).

spxintsyìp [sæ.?sp?in.?j?p] (N) minor ailment.

srätx [sæ.?s?æt?] (N) annoyance. ? (Na'viteri 2011-9-24).

srìn [sæ.'s??n] (N) lent or borrowed thing. ? Oeta a tsasäsrìnìl tok pesengit? "Where’s the thing(you) borrowed from me?" Fol tsnganit pxìmolun’i nì’eng. "They shared the meat.’ OR ‘They divided up the meat equally." (Na'viteri 2012-1-22)

starsìm [sæ.'sta?.s?m] (N) collection (put together intentionally by a person). ? (Na'viteri 2012-3-31)

syep [sæ.?sj?p] (N) a trap; ? syep. ? (forum post, Na'viteri 2012-2-29).

sulìn [sæ.?su.l?n] (N) hobby. ? Oe tskxekeng si säsulìnur alu tsko swizaw "I practice my hobby, namely archery" (Naviteri).

tare [sæ.'ta.??] (N) connection, relationship. ? Nìngay leiu oer sì sempulur sätare asìltsan. "Father and I really have a good relationship; it’s nice." (Na'viteri 2012-6-19)

tsìsyì [sæ.???.sj?] (N) a whisper; ? tsìsyì. ? Po pamlltxe a krr, frapo tarmìng mikyun nìpxi, taluna mokri lu sätsìsyìtsyìp "When he spoke, everyone listened intently, because his voice was a tiny whisper" (Na'viteri 2011-9-24, Na'viteri 2012-2-29).

tswayon [sæ.'?wa.jon] (N) flight(= an instance of flying). ? (Na'viteri 2012-1-9)

tsyìl [sæ.'?j?l] (N) climbing event, a climb; ? tsyìl. ? Kintrramä sätsyìl lu lehrrap slä ’o’ nìtxan. "Last week’s climb was dangerous but very exciting." Tsasästyìl lolu ngäzìk nìngay! "That was a really hard climb!" (Na'viteri 2012-1-22, Na'viteri 2012-2-29)

säwäte [sæ.wæ.?t?] (N) point of contention, source of argument, thing disputed. ? (Naviteri).

säwìntxu [sæw?nt?u] (N) a showing, an exhibition; ? wìntxu. (Na'viteri 2012-2-29)

rìp [sæ.?zæ.??p] (N) pa’li lead, rein.

se’ayl [s?.'?ajl] (N) an individual tall, thin waterfall that pours down a sheer high cliff or off of a floating mountain. ? (countable). (Na'viteri 2012-7-5)

sekrr [?s?.kr??] (N) present.

sempu [?s?m.pu] (N) daddy.

sempul [?s?m.pul] (N) father.

set [s?t] (Adv) now. ? awpot [< ’awpot?] set ftxey ayngal "choose one [now]" (ASG, Hunt Song); vay set "up to now" (AMFP); ’Awa tìpawmìri ’iveyng oe set; aylari zusawkrr ’ayeyng. [Let me answer one of the questions now; the others I will answer in the future.] (Numerals).

sevin [s?.?vin] (Adj) pretty (used only for people, Na’vi or humans). ? sevin "pretty" (in contrast to ? lor) (LL).

seykxel [s?j.?k??l] (Adj) strong, "inner strength, a quiet feeling of confidence in one’s own capability".  ? Seykxel sì nitram "strong and happy," an idiom for congratulating someone on their good fortune (Na’viteri).

seyri [?s?j.?i] (N) lip.

seysonìltsan [sey.so.n?l.??an] (Idiom) well done! ? A conversational expression derived from hasey soli nìltsan. Ngeyä tìkangkemìri ’efeiu oe ye nìtxan. Seysonìltsan! "I’m very satisfied with your work. Well done!" (Na'viteri 2011-4-5).

seze [?s?.z?] (N) blue flower (botan.).

si [si] (V) make, do (to use only as a copulative verb together with a noun or adjective). ? [kato] oeru teya si "[the rhythm] fills me" (ASG, Weaving Song); ayngaru seiyi irayo "I thank you", tìkangkem s(iv)i "work"; (AMFP).

sim [sim] (Vin) near (= be near).

sì | -sì [s?] (Conj) and (also enclitic: A Bsì = A sì B; not to connect sentences, ? ulte). ? [kato] trrä sì txonä, sì ayzìsìtä kato, sì ’ekong te’lanä … "[the rhythm] of night and day, the rhythm of the years, and the beat of the hearts …" (ASG, Weaving Song); Lu nga win sì txur "You are fast and strong" (ASG, Hunt Song); Ayeylanur oeyä sì eylanur lì’fyayä leNa’vi nìwotx "To all my friends and friends of the Na’vi language" (AMFP); [zam(iv)unge oel ayngar] aylì’ut horentisì lì’fyayä leNa’vi "[I bring you] the words and the rules of Na’vi" (AMFP); ’eylan karyusì anygeyä "your friend and teacher" (AMFP).

sìk [s?k] (M–) to conclude a cited phrase (? san).

sìl·pey [s?l.?p?j] (V) hope. ? Sìlpey oe, layu oeru ye’rìn sìltsana fmawn "I hope, I will soon have good news" (AMFP).

sìlronsem [s?l.??on.s?m] (Adj) clever, smart (thing).

sìltsan [s?l.??an] (Adj) good. ? sìltsana fmawn "good news" (AMFP).

sìn [s?n] (Adp–) on, onto (?).

sìpawm ? tìpawm.

sìrey ? tìrey.

ska’a [ska.??a] (Vtr) destroy. ? Hetuwongìl awngeyä swotut ska’a "The aliens destroy our sacred place" ([99]).

skepek [sk?.p?k] (Adj) formal.

skien [?ski.?n] (Adj) right (not left).

sko [sko] (Adp+) as, in the capacity of, in the role of. ? Sko Sahìk ke tsun oe mìftxele tsngivawvìk; sko sa’nok tsun. "As Tsahik, I cannot weep over this matter; as a mother, I can." (Na'viteri 2012-3-31)

skxakep [?sk?a.k?p] (Adj) probable; (Adv) probably.

skxawng [sk?aw?] (N) moron, idiot. ? skxawng "moron" (UGO).

skxir [sk?i?] (N) wound. ? oeri skxir a mì syokx tìsraw sengi "the wound on my hand hurts" (Na'viteri 2011-05-25)

skxirtsyìp [?sk?i?.?j?p] (N) cut, bruise, minor wound.

skxir si [sk?i? si] (Vin) wound. ? taronyu yerikur skxir soli "the hunter wounded the hexapede" (Na'viteri 2011-05-25).

skxom [sk?om] (N) chance, opportunity.

slan [slan] (Vtr) support. ? Used for emotional, social, or personal support, but not physical support. Tìwäteri ngal oeti pelun ke slan kawkrr? "Why don’t you ever support me in an argument?" (Na'viteri 2012-3-28)

slantire [slan.ti.'??] (N) inspiration. ? (derived from slan 'support’ + tirea 'spirit’). (Na'viteri 2012-6-19)

slantire si [slanti?? si] (Vin) inspire. ? Säftxulì’u Tsyeykä Na’viru slantire soli nìwotx. "Jake’s speech inspired all the People." (Na'viteri 2012-6-19)

sla’tsu [?sla?.?u] (Vtr) describe. ? pol sla’tsu ayioangit a tse’a fko mì Eywa’eveng "she describes animals seen on Pandora" (Naviteri).

slele [?sl?.l?] Vin swim. ? lehrrap lu fwa evitsyìp slele mì hilvan luke fwa fyeyntu terìng nari, "it’s dangerous for tiny ones to swim in the river without an adult watching" (Naviteri).

slä [slæ] (Conj) but. ? Slä nìawnomum "But as you know" (AMFP); Poltxe Eytukan san oe kayä sìk, slä oel pot ke spaw "Eytukan said he would go, but I don't believe him" ([100] Jan 21).

slär [slæ?] (N) cave. ? (Na'viteri 2012-1-9)

sleyku [sl?j.?ku] (Vtr) produce.

sloa ['slo.a] (Adj) wide. (Na'viteri 2012-6-19)

sloan [slo.?an] (Vtr) pour.  ? rutxe slivoan ngal payit oefpi "please pour me some water" (Na'viteri 2011-05-25).

slosnep [slo.'sn?p] (N) width. (Na'viteri 2012-6-19)

slosnepe [slo.'sn?.p?] (Q) what width? how wide?. ? Kilvanìri tsatseng slosneppe? "How wide is the river there?" (Na'viteri 2012-6-19)

slu [slu] (V) become. ? "slu = 'become'" ([101] Jan 21); Oeyä ikran slivu nga "Be my ikran" (Lemondrop); X nìNa’vi slu ’upe? "How do you say X in Na’vi?" [lit.: In Na’vi X becomes what?] ([102] Jan 21).

smar [sma?] (N) prey, thing hunted.

smon [smon] (Vin) be familiar to.  ? Used for know of persons, po smon oer "I know him," lit. "he is familiar to me" (Naviteri).

sna’o ['sna.?o] (N) set, group, pile, clump, stand. ? Ayskxe a mì sasna’o ku’up lu nìtxan. "The rocks in that pile are very heavy." (Na'viteri 2012-3-31)

snafpìlfya [sna.'fp?l.fja] (N) philosophy. ? lit.: ‘a group of mindsets’. (Na'viteri 2012-3-31)

snanumultxa [sna.nu.mul.'t?a] (N) course. ? Tìflä latem ìlä seynga ftxey fkol sänumet livek fuke. "Success depends on whether or not one follows instructions." (Na'viteri 2012-7-5)

snatan [sna.tan.'h?] (N) constellation. ? lit.: ‘a clump of stars’. (Na'viteri 2012-3-31)

snatanhìtsyìp [snatanh??j?p] (N) star cluster. ? (Na'viteri 2012-3-31)

snatxärem [sna.'t?æ.??m] (N) skeleton. ? lit.: ‘a set of bones’. (Na'viteri 2012-3-31)

snaytu [?snaj.tu] (N) loser. ? Frauvanìri lu yora'tu, lu snaytu "For every game, there's a winner and a loser" (Na'viteri 2011-12-31).

snaytx [snajt’] (Vin) lose (a game).  ? ayoe snolaytx fìtrr taluna oel rumit tolungzup "we lost today because I dropped the ball" (Na'viteri 2011-05-25).

snep [sn?p] (Adj) narrow. ? Tsautralìri tangek lu sloa nìtxan; ’evi ke tsun tsyivìl. "he trunk of that tree is very wide; the kid cannot climb it" (Na'viteri 2012-6-19)

sno [sno] (Prn) the 3rd person reflexive pronoun (indifferent to number).

  1. sneyä (Genitive) his own, her own, its own, their own.  ? Pol ’olem sneyä wutsot "he prepared his own meal" (Ultxa Ayharyuä).
  2. snor(u) (Dative) to himself, to herself, to itself, to themselves. ? Po yawne lu snor "He loves himself" (Na'viteri 2011-12-31).

snumìna [?snu.m?.na] (Adj) dim (of a person).

sngap [s?ap] (Vtr) sting.

sngä’i [?s?æ.?i] (Vin) begin, start (something is beginning). ? The transitive version is formed using the causative infix: Oel sngeykolä’i tìkangkemit "I began the work" ([103] Feb 15).

sngä’iyu [?s?æ.?i.ju] (N) beginner.

sngä’ikrr [?s?æ.?i.kr??] (N) beginning, start time.

sngel [s??l] (N) garbage.

sngeltseng [?s??l.???] (N) garbage dump. ? "Sngeltseng means garbage dump." (UGO).

sngum [s?um] (N) worry. ? lu oeru sngum a saronyu ke tìyevätxaw "I’m worried that the hunters will not return (soon, as expected)" (Naviteri).

so’ha ['so?.ha] (Vtr 12) be enthusiastic about, show enthusiasm for, be excited about. ? This word can also be used on its own as an interjection. Oel so’ha futa trray ngahu kä "I’m excited about going with you tomorrow." (Na'viteri 2012-6-19)

soaia [so.?a.i.a] (N) family. Genitive soaiä.

sok [sok] (Adj) recent. ? (EDM).

sokx ? tokx.

som [som] (Adj) hot.

somwew [som.?w?w] (N) temperature. ? yari somwewpe? "what's the temperature?" (Na'viteri 2011-05-05).

sop [sop] (Vin) travel.

spaw [spaw] (Vtr + patientive of the person) believe. ? Spivaw oeti rutxe "Please believe me" (AMFP); oel pot ke spaw "I don't believe him" ([104] Jan 21).

spä [spæ] (Vin) jump.

spe’e [sp?.???] (Vtr) capture.

spe’etu [sp?.???.tu] (N) captive.

speng [sp??] (V) restore.

spono ['spo.no] (N) island. ? Ayoel rolun mipa sponot mì hilvan. "We found a new island in the river." (Na'viteri 2012-3-28)

spule [?spu.l?] (Vtr) propel.  ? kämakto nìwin, ayngati spivule hufwel "you ride out as fast as the wind can carry you" (Na'vi from Avatar Movie).

spuwin [?spu.win] (Adj) old (not for people), former.

spxam [sp?am] (N) fungus.

spxin [sp?in] (Adj) sick. ? (MND).

srak [s?ak] (or) srake [?s?a.k?] (M) to indicate a yes-no-question. ? Ngaru lu fpom srak? "Do you have a sense of well-being?" (VF); Nga za’u fìtseng pxìm srak? "Do you come here often?" (Lemondrop).

sran ? srane.

srane [?s?a.n?] (Idiom) yes. ? Nga tsap’alute soli srak? – Srane, soli. [Did you apologize? – Yes, I did.] (Auxilary verb SI); colloquial form: sran "yeah".

sraw [s?aw] (Adj) painful. ? (EDM).

srätx [s?æt?] (Vtr) bother, annoy. ? Oeti rä’ä srätx "Don’t bother me" (Na'viteri 2011-9-24).

sre [s??] (Adp+) before (time).

sre’ [s???] (N) tooth.

srefey [s??.?f?j] (Vtr); (Vin) expect. ? set srefey oel futa tsampongu tätxaw maw txon’ong OR set srefey oe tsnì tsampongu tätxaw maw txon’ong, I’m currently expecting the war party back after nightfall (Naviteri).

srekamtrr [s??.?kam.tr??] (N); (Adv) before midday, before noon (? kxamtrr). ? (TH).

srekamtxon [s??.?kam.t?on] (N); (Adv) before midnight (as the middle of the night) (? kxamtxon). ? (TH).

srekrr [s??.kr??] (Adv) before (time).

srer [s???] (Vin) appear, materialize, come into view. ? Txonam tengkrr tarmìran oe kxamlä na’rìng, sroler eo utral atsawl txewma vrrtep. "Last night as I was walking through the forest, a frightening demon appeared in front of a big tree." (Na'viteri 2012-3-28)

srese’a [s??.s?.??a] (V) prophesy, predict.

sresrr’ong [s??.sr??.??o?] (N); (Adv) before daybreak, before dawn (? trr’ong). ? (TH).

sreton’ong [s??.ton.??o?] (N); (Adv) before darkness falls, before night unfolds (? txon’ong). ? (TH).

srew [s??w] (Vin) dance.

sru’ [s?u?] (Vtr) crush, trample. ? Weynflitit ’angtsìkìl srolu’ tspang. "Wainfleet was crushed and killed by a hammerhead." (Na'viteri 2012-7-5)

srung [s?u?] (N) help, assistance.

srung si [s?u? si] (Vin) help.

starsìm [?sta?.s?m] (Vtr) gather, collect.

stawm [stawm] (Vtr) hear. ? ’upxaret stolawm oel "I have heard the message" (AMFP).

stä’ [?stæ?.n?] (Vtr) catch.

steftxaw [st?.?ft?aw] (Vtr) examine, check.

steng [st??] (Adj) similar. ? Säfpìl asteng, tìkan ateng "Great minds think alike" (Na'viteri 2011-9-24).

steyki [st?j.?ki] (Vtr) anger, make (someone) angry.

sti [sti] (Vin) angry (= be angry).

sto [sto] (V) refuse (to do something).

stum [stum] (Adv) almost.

stxeli [?st??.li] gift, present.  ? ftxozäri fìtìngop alor lu sweya stxeli a tolel oel "this beautiful creation is the best present I have received for (my birthday) celebration" (forum).

stxenu [?st??.nu] (N) offer. ? From stxeli "gift" + lonu "release, let go". Po poltxe san tìtstewnga’a stxenuri irayo seiyi oe ngaru nìtxan "She said, “I thank you very much for your courageous offer”" (Na'viteri 2011-9-24).

stxenutìng [?st??.nu.t??] (Vtr) offer. ? Oeri tìreyti oel stxenutolìng fpi olo’ awngeyä "I offered my life for the sake of our clan" (Na'viteri 2011-9-24).

stxong [st?o?] (Adj) strange, unfamiliar, unknown (potentially threatening or dangerous).  ? larmu tsatsamsiyuhu tìvawm a lu stxong ayoer "that warrior carried with him a darkness unknown to us" (Naviteri).

sulìn [?su.l?n] (Vin) be busy (positive sense), be engrossed in something one finds pleasant.  ? Pamtseori po sulängìn nìhawng "He is overly engrossed in his music" (Naviteri).

sunu [?su.nu] (Vin) be pleasing or likeable, bring enjoyment. ? Sunu oeru fwa fìtsengit terok oel nìmun "I'm happy to be here again" (Naviteri).

sung [su?] (Vtr) add.

sute ? tute.

sutx [sut?] (Vtr) track, follow, lock up.

swaw [swaw] (N) moment.

swey [sw?j] (Adj) best (? ’e’al). ? paye’un sweya fya’ot "I will decide the best way" (AMFP); "'Best' is simply swey" ([105] Dec 20).

sweylu [sw?j.?lu] (V) should. ? Not used for counterfactual statements. Sweylu txo nga kivä "You should go" (Na'viteri 2011-4-5).

swi [swi.??æ] (N) creature.

swizaw [swi.?zaw] (N) arrow. ? Oeyä swizaw … "[Let] my arrow …" (ASG, Hunt Song).

swok [swok] (Adj) sacred.

swotu [?swo.tu] (N) sacred place. ? Hetuwongìl awngeyä swotut ska’a "The aliens destroy our sacred place" ([106]).

syaksyuk [sjak.?sjuk] (N) prolemuris.

syal ? tsyal.

syanan ['sja.nan] (N) a single drop or series of smaller falls occurring sequentially along a stream or series of pools. ? (countable). (Na'viteri 2012-7-5)

syaw [sjaw] (Vin) call, name. ? Fyape fko syaw ngar? "What is your name?" (lit.: How does one call (to) you?), Oeru syaw fko Neytiri "My name is Neytiri", the subject fko may be omitted: Oeru syaw Tseyk "My name is Jake" (RaN).

syay [sjaj] (N) fate.

syayvi [?sjaj.vi] (N) luck, chance.

syä’ä [?sjæ.?æ] (Adj) bitter.

syeha ['sj?.ha] (N) breath. ? (Na'viteri 2012-3-31)

syeha si [sj?ha si] (Vin) breathe. ? Ma Ralu, srung si por! Nìwin! Syeha ke si! "Ralu, help her! Quick! She’s not breathing!" (Na'viteri 2012-3-31)

syen [sj?n] (Adj) last, final.

syep [sj?p] (Vtr) trap. ? You syep ‘trap’ by means of a säsyep ‘a trap’. (Na'viteri 2012-2-29)

syo [sjo] (Adj) light, lightweight. ? (TH).

syulang [?sju.la?] (N) flower. ? (MND).

syura [sju.'?a] (N) energy. ? Can mean both physical and spiritual energy. It’s the “life force of Eywa,” which pervades all of Pandora and its creatures. Frasyurati fkol zasrolìn nì’aw ulte trro zene teykivätxaw. "All energy is only borrowed, and one day it will have to be given back." (Na'viteri 2012-3-28)

syuratan [sju.'?a.tan] (N) bioluminescence. ? Txonkrr lu syuratan na’rìngä Eywevengä lor nìtxan. "At night, the bioluminescence of the Pandoran forest is very beautiful." (Na'viteri 2012-3-28)

syuve [?sju.v?] (N) food.

T [t]

-t [t] (M) patientive suffix (in case of the word ending on a vowel) [allomorphs: -ti, -it ]. ? Katot täftxu oel "I weave the rhythm" (ASG, Weaving Song); ’upxaret stolawm oel "I have heard the message" (AMFP); paye’un sweya fya’ot "I will decide the best way" (AMFP).

ta [ta] (Adp–) from (different usages). ? oeri ta peyä fahew ontu teya l(äng)u "my nose is full from his smell"; Markusì ta Ngalwey "Markus from Galway" (AMFP); Ta ’eylan karyusì anygeyä, Pawl "[This letter comes from] your friend and teacher, Paul" (AMFP).

ta’em [ta.???m] (Adv) from above.

ta’leng [?ta?.l??] (N) skin.

tafkip [ta.?fkip] (Adp–) from up among.

tafral [ta.?f?al] (Adv) therefore, because of that. ? (Some Conjunctions and Adverbs).

takip [ta.?kip] (Adp–) from among.

takrra [ta.?kr??.a] (Conj) since. ? Aylì’fya yawne leru oer takrra ’eveng lamu "I've loved languages since I was a child" (Naviteri).

takuk [?ta.kuk] (Vtr) strike, hit one's target. ? Oeyä swizaw nìngay tivakuk, oeyä tukrul txe’lanit tivakuk, oeri tìngayìl txe’lanit tivakuk "Let my arrow strike true, let my spear strike the heart, let the thruth strike my heart" (ASG, Hunt Song).

talioang [?tal.i.?o.a?] (N) sturmbeast (zool.).

talun [ta.?lun] (or) taluna [ta.?lun.a] (Conj, Adp-) because, because of, due to. ? Tì’i’ari tsamä zene Sawtute vivelek talun tìtxur Eywayä. "At the end of the war, the Sky People had to give up due to the power of Eywa." (Some Conjunctions and Adverbs, Na'viteri 2012-3-28)

tam [tam] (Vin) suffice, "do"; (Idiom) All right! OK! ? Tsun tivam [It's ok; lit.: It is able to do it] (Ok).

tan [tan.?h?] (N) bioluminescent freckle, star.

tangek [?ta?.?k] (N) trunk (of a tree).

tare ['ta.??] (Vtr 12) connect, relate to, have a relationship with. ? Säplltxel karyuä ke tolaränge tìpawmit kaw’it. "The teacher’s statement in no way pertained to the question. Drat!" (Na'viteri 2012-6-19)

taron [?ta.?on] (Vtr) hunt. ? taron "hunt" (LL); Neytiril yerikit tolaron "Neytiri hunted a hexapede" (MSNBC).

taronyu [?ta.?on.ju] (N) hunter.

tatep [?ta.t?p] (Vtr) lose, lose track or awareness of something. ? (forum post).

tatlam [tat.?lam] (Adv) apparently.

taw [taw] (N) sky. ? "Tawsìp is actually 'sky ship'" (UGO); "a single human is known among the Na’vi as a Sky Person, or tawtute" (MSNBC).

tawsyuratan [tawsju?atan] (N) aurora. ? (to be confirmed). (Na'viteri 2012-3-28)

taweyk [ta.?w?jk] (or) taweyka [ta.?w?jk.a] (Conj) because. ? (Some Conjunctions and Adverbs).

tawng [taw?] (Vin) dive, duck.

tawsìp [?taw.s?p] (N) spaceship. ? "Tawsìp is actually 'sky ship', the term they would use for a space vehicle." (UGO).

tawtute [?taw.tu.t?] (N) human (lit.: 'sky person'; short plural: sawtute). ? "a single human is known among the Na’vi as a Sky Person, or tawtute, while the plural (Sky People) is aysawtute or simply sawtute" (MSNBC).

ftxu [tæ.?ft?u] (Vtr) weave. ? Katot täftxu oel "I weave the rhythm" (ASG, Weaving Song).

ftxuyu [tæ.?ft?u.ju] (N) weaver.

txaw [tæ.?t?aw] (Vin) return. ? maw hìkrr ayoe tìyätxaw "we will return after a short time" (Zenke).

te [t?] (Part) a particle used in full names.

te’lan ? txe’lan.

tel [t?l] (Vtr) receive. ? tì’eyngit oel tolel a krr "when I receive an answer" (AMFP).

  1. Tolel! [to.?l?l] (Idiom) "Eureka! I got it! I understand!".

telem [t?.?l?m] (N) cord.

tem [t?m] (Vin) shoot. ? See also toltem.

temrey [t?m.???j] (N) survival (in the face of danger).

teng [t??] (Adj) equal, same. ? Fìtxon na ton alahe nìwotx pelun ke lu teng? [Why is this night not the same like all other nights?] (Why is).

tengfya [?t??.fja] (Conj) as (= same way as).

tengkrr [t??.?kr??] (Conj) while (= same time as).

teri [t?.??i] (Adp–) about, concerning. ? "teri (stress on 2nd) = about, concerning (ADP–)" (Vocabulary and <iyev>).

terkup [?t??.kup] (Vin) die.

teswo·tìng [t?.?swo.t??] (V) grant.

tete [?t?.t?] (Adj) dull (as a blade).

tewng [t?w?] (N) loincloth. ? (Na'viteri 2011-8-3).

tewti [?t?w.ti] (Idiom) expression of (pleasant) surprise: Wow! ? Tewti, ma Prrton! "Wow, Prrton!" (LL).

teyr [t?j?] (Adj) white.

teya [t?.?ja] (Adj) full (ta … – of …). ? Oeri ta peyä fahew (…) ontu teya längu. "My nose is full of his smell" (LL).

teya si [t?.?ja si] (Vin + dative) fill, make full. ? [kato] oeru teya si "[the rhythm] fills me" (ASG, Weaving Song).

teylu [?t?j.lu] (N) beetle larva(e) (zool.; pat.: teylut). ? Oe new yivom teylut "I want to eat teylu" ([107] Jan 20).

-ti [ti] (M) patientive suffix (in case of the word ending on a vowel) [allomorphs: -t, -it ]. ? Oel ngati kameie "I See you" (UGO); Spivaw oeti rutxe "Please believe me" (AMFP).

til [til] (N) joint, hinge.

tinan [?ti.nan] (N) reading. ? Tsmìmìri wätx fol tinanit nìngay "They’re really bad at reading animal tracks" (Na'viteri 2011-9-4).

tirea [ti.???.a] (N) spirit.

tireafya’o [ti.???.a.?fja.?o] (N) spirit path.

tireaioang [ti.???.a.i.?o.a?] (N) spirit animal (Na’vi culture). ? Ngeyä Tireaioang zola’u a krr, law layu ngaru "When your Spirit Animal comes, you will know" (Krr).

tirea·pängkxo [ti.???.a.pæ?.?k?o] (V) commune (about intimate contact). ? ke lu kawtu a nulnivew oe pohu tireapivängkxo "There's nobody I'd rather commune with" (Lemondrop).

tì- [t?] (M–) to turn adjectives or verbs into abstract nouns. ? tìftia "the study" (SciMag); tìngay "truth" (ASG, Hunt Song); tìfyawìntxu(ri) "guidance" (AMFP).

’awm [t?.??awm] (N) camping.

’awm si [t?.??awm si] (Vin) camp.

’awpo [t?.??aw.po] (N) individuality (neg. connotation); selfishness.

’efu [t?.???.fu] (N) feeling. ? (EDM).

  1. ’efumì oeyä [t?.???.fu.m? w?.jæ] (Idiom) "In my opinion". ? (EDM).

’eylan [t?.???j.lan] (N) friendship; ? ’eylan. (Na'viteri 2012-2-29)

’eyng [t?.???j?] (N) answer, response. ? ke pamähängem kea tì’eyng "no answer has arrived" (AMFP).

’i’a [t?.??i.?a] (N) ending, conclusion.

’i’avay krrä [t?.??i.?a.vaj ?kr??.æ] (Idiom) forever, ’til the end of time (poetic). ? the "poetic" meaning is "until the end of time" (source).

’ipu [t?.'?i.pu] (N) the abstract concept of being humorous, that is, humor in general. ? ’ipu. ? Srake tsun nga rivun fìtìfkeytokmì a tì’iput? "Can you find the humor in this situation?" (Na'viteri 2012-1-9, Na'viteri 2012-2-29)

’o’ [t?.??o?] (N) fun, excitement.  ? tì’o’ìri peu sunu ngar frato "what is your favorite way to have fun? (Naviteri).

eyktan [t?.'?jk.tan] (N) leadership. ? Ngeyä tìeyktanìri, tìslanìri sì tsranten frato a tì’eylanìri a ka ayzìsìt nìwotx, seiyi oe irayo nìtxan. "Thank you so much for your leadership, your support, and most importantly your friendship throughout the years." (Na'viteri 2012-3-28)

fkeytok [t?.?fk?j.tok] (N) state, condition, situation. ? tìfkeytok lefkrr lehrrap lu nìtxan "the current situation is very dangerous;" very often found as the suffix -fkeyk as in kilvanfkeyk lu fyape fìtrr? "what’s the condition of the river today?" (Na'viteri 2011-4-1).

flä [t?.'flæ] (N) success (in general). (Na'viteri 2012-7-5)

fmetok [t?.?fm?.tok] (N) test.

fmi [t?.'fmi] (N) attempt. ? (Na'viteri 2012-1-9)

fnu [t?.?fnu] (N) quiet, silence.

ftang [t?.?fta?] (N) stopping.

tìftia [t?.fti.?a] (N) study. ? tìftia kifkeyä "the study of the physical world ['science']" (SciMag).

ftxey [t?.?ft??j] (N) choice. ? Lu ngeyä tìftxey [It's your choice] ([108] Jan 21).

tìftxu’u [t?.ft?u.'l?.?u] (N) speech-making, public speaking. ? Oeri lu tìftxulì’u ngäzìk nìtxan. Wätx nì’aw. "Public speaking is very difficult for me. I’m hopelessly bad at it." (Na'viteri 2012-6-19)

tìfyawìntxu [t?.fja.w?n.?t?u] (N) guidance. ? tìfyawìntxuri oeyä perey aynga nìwotx "you are all waiting for my guidance" (AMFP).

fyeyn [t?.?fj?jn] (N) ripeness, maturity, full fruition.

hawl [t?.?hawl] (N) preparations, plan.

hawnu [t?.?haw.nu] (N) protection; ? hawnu. (Na'viteri 2012-2-29)

hona [t?.'ho.na] (N) cuteness, adorableness. ? Peyä ’itanìri lu hona nìtxan a fì’u law lu frapor. Slä tìhona nì’aw ke tam. "It’s clear to everyone that his son is very cute. But cuteness alone isn’t enough." (Na'viteri 2012-1-22)

tìk’ìn [t?k.???in] (N) free time, absence of ’ìn.  ? tìk’ìnìri kempe si nga? "what do you do in your free time?" (Naviteri).

kan [t?.?kan] (N) aim, goal, purpose, target.

kanu [t?.?ka.nu] (N) intelligence; ? kanu. (Na'viteri 2012-2-29)

kangkem [t?.?ka?.k?m] (N) work.

kangkem si [t?.?ka?.k?m si] (Vin) work. ? zene oe ’awsiteng tìkangkem sivi fohu … "I must work together with those …" (AMFP).

kangkemvi [t?.?ka?.k?m.vi] (N) project, piece of work.

kawng [t?.?kaw?] (N) evil.

kenong [t?.?k?.no?] (N) example.  ? fìpoti oel tspìyang, fte tìkenong liyevu aylaru "I will kill this one as a lesson to the others" (Capturing Avatar).

keteng [t?.?k?.t??] (N) difference. ? (EDM).

kin [t?.?kin] (N) need.  ? Kea tìkin "(there is) no need," an idiom for responding to thanks (Na’viteri).

kxey [t?.?k??j] (N) incorrectness, mistakeness. ? (EDM).

  1. ngaru tìkxey [?a.?u t?.?k??j] (Idiom) You're wrong. ? (EDM).

kxey si [t?.?k??j si] (Vin) mess up, foul, do wrong. ? (EDM).

lam [t?.?lam] (N) appearance.

law [t?.?law] (N) clarification (?). ? tìlaw ta Prrton "clarification (?) by Prrton" (Some Conjunctions and Adverbs).

len [t?.?l?n] (N) event, happening. ? (Na'viteri 2011-07-24).

tìlor [t?lo?] (N) beauty; ? lor. (Na'viteri 2012-2-29)

tìm [t?m] (Adj) low.

mal [t?.'mal] (N) trustworthiness. ? Lekin lu tìtxur, lu tìtstew. Slä letsranten frato lu tìmal. "Strength and courage are necessary. But most important of all is trustworthiness." (Na'viteri 2012-1-22)

me’em [t?.?m?.??m] (N) harmony (general sense). ? (EDM).

tìmll’an [t?.ml??.??an] (N) acceptance. ? (Na'viteri 2011-9-24).

tìmok [t?mok] (N) suggestion, the abstract idea of suggesting; ? mok. ? Fìtxeleri tìmok ke tam; zene fko fngivo’. "In this matter, suggesting won’t cut it; you need to demand." (Na'viteri 2012-2-29)

tìmuntxa [t?.mun.?t?a] (N) mating, Na’vi marriage.

tìmweypey [t?m.?w?j.p?j] (N) patience. ? (EDM).

tìn [t?n] (N) activity that keeps one busy.

no [t?.?no] (N) thoroughness, attention to detail.

nomum [t?.?no.mum] (N) curiosity. ? (? newomum).

tìng [t??] (V) give. ? fmawn a tsun oe ayngaru tivìng "news to give you [= news, which I can give you]" (AMFP); "tìng 'give'" ([109] Dec 31).

  1. tìng mikyun [t?m ?mik.jun] (V) listen.
  2. tìng nari [t?n ?na.?i] (V) see. ? Tìng nari nekll "See below" ([110]).
  3. tìng tseng [t?? ???] (Vin) back down.
  4. tìng lawr [t?? law?] (Vin) sing wordlessly, give out a tune or melody. ? ’Evanìl alo a’awve nì’awtu na’rìngit tarmok, ha tolìng lawr nìfwefwi fteke txopu sivi "The boy was alone in the forest for the first time, so he whistled a tune to calm his fears" (Na'viteri 2011-9-24).

ngay [t?.??aj] (N) truth. ? oeri tìngayìl txe’lanit tivakuk "Let the truth strike my heart" (ASG, Hunt Song).

ngäzìk [t?.??æ.z?k] (N) difficulty, problem.

ngong [t?.??o?] (N) lethargy, laziness. ? (Na'viteri 2011-10-31).

ngop [t?.??op] (N) creation. ? (EDM).

tìoeyktìng [t?.o.??jk.t??] (N) explanation.

tìohakx [t?.o.?hak?] (N) hunger. ? (EDM).

omum [t?.?o.mum] (N) knowledge. ? tìomummì oeyä "to my knowledge, as far as I know" (Na'viteri 2011-9-4).

pawm [t?.?pawm] (N) question (short plural: sìpawm). ? Sìpawmìri oe ngaru seiyi irayo [I thank you for your questions] ([111] Jan 19).

hem [t?.?pæ.h?m] (N) arrival; ? pähem. ? In the sense of a particular arrival, not arrival in the abstract sense. (Na'viteri 2012-2-29)

tìpängkxo [t?.pæ?.?k?o] (N) conversation, discussion.

pe’un [t?.?p?.?un] (N) decision.

prrte’ [t?.?pr??.t??] (N) pleasure.

ran [t?.??an] (Vin) walk. ? Terìran ayoe "We are walking" (ASG, Hunt Song); Tivìran po ayoekip … "Let her walk among us …" ([112] Jan 09). Of the wind, tìran hufwe "it's breezy (but pleasantly so)" (Na'viteri 2011-05-05).

rawn [t?.'?awn] (N) replacement, act of replacing. ? Po ’efu ngeyn ulte kin tìrawnit nìtxan. "He is tired and very much needs to be replaced." (Na'viteri 2012-1-9)

rey [t?.???j] (N) life (short plural: sìrey). ? ’ìheyu sìreyä "the spiral of the lives" (ASG, Weaving Song); mì oeyä letrra tìrey "in my daily life" (CwT).

rol [t?.??ol] (N) song; ? rol. ? Tìrusol lu oeru mowan. "Singing is enjoyable to me." (Na'viteri 2012-2-29)

ronsrel [t?.??on.s??l] (N) imagination. ? lu poru tìronsrel atxanatan "she has a vivid imagination" (Naviteri).

tìska’a [t?.ska.??a] (N) destruction.

sla’tsu [t?.?sla?.?u] (N) description. ? (Naviteri).

slan [t?.'slan] (N) support. ? Ngeyä tìeyktanìri, tìslanìri sì tsranten frato a tì’eylanìri a ka ayzìsìt nìwotx, seiyi oe irayo nìtxan. "Thank you so much for your leadership, your support, and most importantly your friendship throughout the years." (Na'viteri 2012-3-28)

snaytx [t?.?snajt’] (N) loss (of a contest).

tìso’ha [t?so?ha] (N) enthusiasm; having a good attitude. (Na'viteri 2012-6-19)

sop [t?.?sop] (N) journey.

spxin [t?.?sp?in] (N) sickness (= the state of being ill; in contrast to ? säspxin). ? (MND).

sraw [t?.?s?aw] (N) pain. ? (EDM).

sraw seyki [t?.?s?aw s?j.?ki] (Vtr) hurt (someone or something).

sraw si [t?.?s?aw si] (Vin) hurt, be painful.

srese’a [t?.?s??.s?.?a] (N) prophecy.

tìsteftxaw [t?.st?.?ft?aw] (N) examination. ? Tìsteftxaw ngeyä flolä nìltsan! [Your examination succeeded well!] ([113] Jan 20).

sti [t?.?sti] (N) anger.

taron [t?.?ta.?on] (N) (the) hunting. ? Tìtaron lu lehrrap "Hunting is dangerous" ([114] Jan 20).

terkup [t?.?t??.kup] (N) death. ? (Life, Death and Gerunds).

txanew [t?.?t?a.n?w] (N) greed.

txula [t?.?t?u.la] (N) construction, constructed thing.

txur [t?.?t?u?] (N) strength, power.

txen si [t?.?t??n si] (N) part of the full idiom eltur tìtxen si be interesting, be intriguing. ? tsa’u eltur tìtxen si "that’s interesting." Tsavur oeyä eltur tìtxen soli "that story intrigued me." Tsavur feyä ayeltur tìtxen soli "they found that story interesting." Pxoeri tsavur eltur tìtxen soli "the three of us were interested in that story" (TH).

tslam [t?.??lam] (N) understanding, intelligence.

tstew [t?.??tew] (N) courage, bravery. ? (Na'viteri 2011-9-24).

tstewnga’ [t?.??tew.?a?] (Adj) courageous, brave. ? Not for persons. Kem atìtstewnga’ si tute atstew "A brave person does brave deeds" (Na'viteri 2011-9-24).

tstunwi [t?.??tun.wi] (N) kindness. ? tìtstunwi ayngeyä oeru teya soli "your kindness fills me with joy" (forum).

tsunslu [t?.'?un.slu] (N) possibility. (Na'viteri 2012-7-5)

tsyär [t?.??jæ?] (N) rejection. ? (Na'viteri 2011-9-24).

vawm [t?.?vawm] (N) darkness.

väng [t?.?væ?] (N) thirst.  ? Apxa tìvängìl poti steykoli "(his) great thirst made him angry" (Naviteri).

tìve’ [t?.v??.?k?] (N) hatred.

wan [t?.?wan] N obfuscation, cover-up. ? Naviteri.

tìwäte [t?.wæ.?t?] (N) dispute, argument.  ? (Naviteri).

yawn [t?.?jawn] (N) love. ? Lì’fyari leNa’vi oel ’efu ayngeyä tìyawnit "I feel your love for the Na’vi language" (AMFP).

yawr [t?.?jaw?] (N) correctness. ? (EDM).

  1. ngaru tìyawr [?a.?u t?.?jaw?] (Idiom) You're right. ? (EDM).

yo [t?.'jo?] (N) perfection. ? Fìtseori ke tsun kawtu pivähem tìyo’ne; tsranten tìpähemä tìfmi nì’aw. "In this art it’s impossible to arrive at perfection; the only thing that matters is the attempt to arrive there." (Na'viteri 2012-1-9)

tìyora’ [t?.jo.??a?] (N) victory, a win.

to [to] (M–) comparative marker: than. ? po to oe lu sìltsan "she is better than I" (Adjective Comparatives).

tok [tok] (Vtr) be at, occupy a space.  ? Note transitivity, tok pesengit oeyä pxirìl "where is my beer?" (forum post).

toktor [?tok.to?] (N) doctor.

tokx [tok?] (N) body (short plural: sokx). ? tokx "body", sokx "bodies" (LL); tokx eo tokx "face to face, in person" (Fmawno).

toltem [tol.?t?m] (Vtr) shoot. ? See also tem.

tompa [?tom.pa] (N) rain. ? Tompayä kato, tsawkeyä kato … "The rhythm of rain and sun …" (ASG, Weaving Song).

tompameyp [tom.pa.?m?jp] (N) drizzle. ? (Na'viteri 2011-4-1).

tomperwì [?tom.p??.w?] (N) sleet. ? (Na'viteri 2011-4-1).

tompìva [?tom.p?.va] (N) raindrop. ? (Na'viteri 2011-4-1).

ton ? txon.

tor [to?] (Adj) last, ultimate, terminal.  ? Distinguish from syen: "tor refers to something that will bring about finality: tìpawm ator: the ultimate question, the answer to which will end all discussion, debate, or contemplation" (Naviteri).

toruk [?to.?uk] (N) great leonopteryx (zool.).

  1. Toruk makto [?to.?uk ?mak.to] (NP) Rider of the last shadow (legendary hero of the Na’vi). ? According to the grammar rules it should be "maktoyu", but this is an exeption, and doesn't follow the normal rules. ([115]).

trr [tr??] (N) day. ? [kato] trrä sì txonä "[the rhythm] of night and day [lit.: day and night]" (ASG, Weaving Song); oe tsun pivey trrit a … [I can wait for the day, that …] (CwT).

  1. trr lu trrpeve? [f?.?tr?? lu tr??.?p?.v?] (Idiom) "What day is it today?". ? (EDM).

Trr’awve [tr??.??aw.v?] (N) Sunday.

trr’ong [tr??.??o?] (N); (Adv) daybreak, dawn. ? (TH).

trr’ongmaw [tr??.??o?.maw] (N); (Adv) after daybreak, after dawn (? trr’ong). ? (TH).

trray [tr??.?aj] (Adv) tomorrow.

Trrkive [tr??.?ki.v?] (N) Saturday.

Trrmuve [tr??.?mu.v?] (N) Monday.

Trrmrrvam [tr??.mr??.?vam] (N); (Adv) Thursday (of the previous week). ? (EDM).

Trrmrrvay [tr??.mr??.?vaj] (N); (Adv) Thursday (of the next week coming up). ? (EDM).

Trrmrrve [tr??.?mr??.v?] (N) Thursday.

Trrpuve [tr??.?pu.v?] (N) Friday.

Trrpxeyve [tr??.?p??j.v?] (N) Tuesday.

Trrtsìve [tr??.???.v?] (N) Wednesday.

trrtxon [tr??.t?on] (N) day night cycle. ? (TH).

-tu [tu] (M) ending to turn all parts of speech other than verbs into the doer (agent); see also -yu. ? "reltseotu = artist" ([116]).

tukru [tuk.??u] (N) spear. ? oeyä tukrul txe’lanit tivakuk "let my spear strike the heart" (ASG, Hunt Song).

tul [tul] (Vin) run. ? Of the wind, tul hufwe nìwin "it's very windy" (Na'viteri 2011-05-05).

tumpin [?tum.pin] (Adj) the color tun.

tun [tun] (Adj) red, orange.

tung [tu?] (V) allow.

tung·zup [tu?.?zup] (Vtr) drop.

tup [tup] (Conj) instead of, rather than.

tupe [?tu.p?] (Q) who (alternative form: pesu).

tut [tut] (Part) particle of continuation. ? Oeru syaw fko Neytiri. Ngaru tut? "My name is Neytiri. And how about you?" (RaN).

tute [?tu.t?] (N) person (short plural: sute). ? tute "person" (LL).

tutan [tu.?tan] (N) male person.

tute [tu.?t?] (N) female person. ? tute "female person" (LL).

tuvon [?tu.von] (V) lean.

TX [t?]

txa’ [t?a?] (Adj) hard.

txal [t?al] (N) back (body part). ? (a collection).

txampay [t?am.?paj] (N) sea, ocean.

txampxì [t?am.?p??] (N) majority, most, large part. ? (EDM).

txan [t?an] (Adj) great (in quantity), much; long (of time).

txanro’a [t?an.'?o.?a] (Vin 23) be famous. ? Vay fwa zola’u TsyeykSuli, Toruk Makto alu pizayu Neytiriyä txanrarmo’a frato kip ayhapxìtu Omatikayaä. "Until Jake Sully arrived, Neytiri’s ancestor was the most famous Toruk Makto among the Omatikaya.’ [lit.: ‘the Toruk Makto that was Neytiri’s ancestor was the most famous . . .’" (Na'viteri 2012-3-28)

txanatan [?t?a.na.tan] (Adj) bright, vivid ? lu poru tìronsrel atxanatan, "she has a vivid imagination" (Naviteri).

txanew [?t?a.n?w] (Adj) greedy.

txanfwer [t’an.?fw??.w?] (N) blizzard. ? (Na'viteri 2011-4-1).

txankrr [t?an.?kr??] (Adv) for a long time. ? Txankrr ngal ke lawk pot kaw’it "You haven’t mentioned a thing about him in a long time" (Na'viteri 2011-9-4).

txantompa [t?an.?tom.pa] (N) rainstorm, heavy rain ? Maw txantompa, pxaya rìkäo lamu tskalep peyä, ha tsat kulat ayoel "After the rainstorm, his crossbow was under a lot of leaves, so we uncovered it (removed the leaves from it)"

txantur [?t?an.tu?] (Adj) powerful.

txantsan [?t?an.?an] (Adj) excellent. ? "txantsan = excellent" (Fused -iv-infixes); Reltseotu atxantsan lu nga! [You are an excellent artist!] ([117]).

txantslusam [?t?an.?lu.sam] (Adj) wise, much-knowing. ? lu nga txantslusam "you are wise" (ASG, Hunt Song).

txantstew [?t?an.?t?w] (N) hero.

txanwawe [t’an.wa.?w?] (Adj) personally meaningful, significant.

txasom [?t’a.som] (Adj) very hot.

txawew [?t’a.w?w] (Adj) very cold.

txay [t?aj] (Vin) be horizontal, lie flat. (Na'viteri 2012-3-28)

txayo [?t?a.jo] (N) field, open terrain.

txärem [t?ä.??m] (N) bone.

txe’lan [t???.?lan] (N) heart (short plural: te’lan). ? sì ’ekong te’lanä, te’lanä le-Na’vi … "and the beat of the hearts, hearts of the people" (ASG, Weaving Song).

txele [?t??.l?] (N) matter (subject). ? lu awngar aytele apxay a teri sa’u pivlltxe "we have many matters to talk about" (Tag Question).

txen [t??n] (Adj) awake.

txep [t??p] (N) fire.

txepìva [?t’?.p?.va] (N) ash, cinder. ? (Na'viteri 2011-4-1).

txepvi [?t??p.vi] (N) spark.

txew [t??w] (N) edge, brink, limit, border, end. ? Ikran yawolo ftu txew ’awkxä. "The banshee took to the air from the edge of a cliff." Srake pol layok txewti na’rìngä? "Will he approach the edge of the forest?" Note the syntax here: lok ‘approach’ is transitive, so pol is agentive and txewti is patientive. Ke tsun awnga pivey nulkrr—txew lok. "We can’t wait any longer—time is almost up." Note: Lok is used intransitively here, so it’s txew, not txewìl. (Na'viteri 2012-3-28)

txewm [t??wm] (Adj) scary, frightening. ? Slä ma sa’nu, ikran txewm lu! Oe txopu si! "But Mommy, the banshee is scary! I’m afraid!" (Na'viteri 2011-11-30).

txewnga’ ['t??w.?a?] (Adj) having a limit, not without bounds, finite. ? Tuteri tìtxur lu txewnga’. "There are limits to a person’s strength." (Na'viteri 2012-3-28)

txey [t??j] (V) halt.

txi [t?i] (N) hurry, hurriedness, frenzy ? (Na'viteri 2011-10-31).

txin [t?in] (Adj) main, primary.

txintìn [?t?in.t?n] (N) occupation, primary role in society.  ? oeyä txintìn lu fwa stä’nì fayoangit "my occupation is to catch fish" (Naviteri).

txìm [t??m] (N) butt, ass, rear end.

txìng [t???] (Vtr) leave, abandon.

txo [t?o] (Conj) if (… tsakrr – … then). ? In case of factual conditions (realis) the predicate of the conditional sentence is in the indicative mood: Txo new nga rivey, oehu! "Come with me, if you want to live!" (UGO); in case of hypothetical conditions (potentialis [and irrealis?]) the predicate of the conditional sentence is in the subjunctive mood: pxan livu txo nì’aw oe ngari, tsakrr … "only if I am worthy of you, [then] …" (ASG, Hunt Song).

txoa [?t?o.a] (N) forgiveness.

txokefyaw [?t?o.k?.fjaw] (Conj) if not, or else, otherwise.

txon [t?on] (N); (Adv) night (short plural: ton). ? [kato] trrä sì txonä "[the rhythm] of night and day [lit.: day and night]" (ASG, Weaving Song); Txon lefpom (livu ngar) "(It may be to you a) good night" ([118] Jan 31); Fìtxon na ton alahe nìwotx pelun ke lu teng? [Why is this night not the same like all other nights?] (Why is).

txon’ong [t?on.??o?] (N); (Adv) darkness falls, night unfolds. ? (TH).

txon’ongmaw [t?on.??o?.maw] (N); (Adv) after darkness falls, after night unfolds (? txon’ong). ? (TH).

txonam [t?o.?nam] (Adv) last night.

txonay [t?o.?naj] (Adv) tomorrow night.

txonkrr ['t?on.k???] (Adv) at night. ? (Na'viteri 2012-3-28)

txopu [?t?o.pu] (N) fear.

txukx [t?uk?] (Adj) deep.

txula [?t?u.la] (V) build, construct. ? "txula (stress on 1st) 'built, construct'" (Auxilary verb SI).

txum [t?um] (N) poison.

txumnga' [?t’um.?a?] (Adj) poisonous.

txur [t?u?] (Adj) strong. ? Lu nga win sì txur "You are fast and strong" (ASG, Hunt Song).

TS (= C) [?]

tsa- [?a] (M–) distal demonstrative prefix. ? (History of tsaw).

tsa’u [??a.?u] (Pron) it (thing) (alternative form: tsaw). ? (History of tsaw).

  1. tsa’ut [??a.?ut] (or) tsa’uti [??a.?u.ti] (Patientive:) it (alternative form: tsat, tsati).

tsafya [??a.fja] (Adv) that way, like that.

tsaheyl si [?a.?h?jl si] (Vin) bond with, establish a neural connection.

tsaheylu [?a.?h?j.lu] (N) bond (neural connection).

Tsahìk [??a.h?k] (NP) Tsahik, matriarch.

tsakem [??a.k?m] (or) tsakem [?a.?k?m] (Pron) that (action); (plural: tsahem). ? tsakem rä’ä sivi aylaheru "don’t do that action (don’t act that (way)) to others" (GMA).

tsakrr [?a.?kr??] (N) that time; (Adv) at that time, then (txo … tsakrr – if … then). ? pxan livu txo nì’aw oe ngari, tsakrr … "only if I am worthy of you, [then] …" (ASG, Hunt Song); tsakrr paye’un sweya fya’ot "I will then decide the best way" (AMFP). About krr being a noun used averbially see also (Krr noun vs. adverb).

tsakrrvay [?a.?kr??.vaj] (Adv) until then, in the meantime. ? (EDM).

tsalsungay [?al.su.??aj] (Adv) nevertheless, even so.

tsam [?am] (N) war.

tsampongu [??am.po.?u] (N) war party.

tsamopin [??a.mo.pin] (N) warpaint. ? From tsam "war" + opin "color" (Na'viteri 2011-8-3).

tsamsiyu [??am.si.ju] (N) warrior.

tsang [?a?] (N) a piercing. ? (Na'viteri 2011-8-3).

tsap’alute [?ap.??a.lut?] (N) apology. ? Fìskxawngìri tsap’alute sengi [< sängi?] oe "I apologize for this moron" (TO).

tsap’alute si [?ap.??a.lut? si] (Vin) apologize. ? Fìskxawngìri tsap’alute sengi [< sängi?] oe "I apologize for this moron" (TO).

tsatu [??a.tu] (Pron) that person.

tsatseng [??a.???] (or) tsatseng [?a.????] (Adv) there, that place.

tsaw [?aw] (Pron) it (thing) (alternative form: tsa’u). ? (History of tsaw).

  1. tsal [?al] (Agentive:) it.
  2. tse [???.jæ] (Genitive:) its.
  3. tsar [?a?] (or) tsaru [??a.?u] (Dative:) it.
  4. tsat [?at] (or) tsati [??a.ti] (Patientive:) it (alternative form: tsa’ut, tsa’uti).
  5. tsari [??a.?i] (Topic:) it.

tsawke [??aw.k?] (N) sun. ? Tompayä kato, tsawkeyä kato … "The rhythm of rain and sun …" (ASG, Weaving Song).

tsawl [?awl] (Adj) big (in size or stature); tall.

tsawl slu [?awl slu] (Vin) grow.

tsawlhì’ [?awl.?h??] (N) size.

tsawlultxa [?awl.ul.'t?a] (N) large gathering, conference. ? Tsatsawlultxari alu SETIkon a2ve, nolume oe nìtxan teri tìtsunslu tìreyä a hifkeymì alahe. "At the SETIcon II conference I learned a lot about the possibility of life on other worlds." (Na'viteri 2012-7-5)

tsä’ [?æ?] (V) squirt.

tse [??] (Idiom) Well … (indicates resumption of conversation, or introduces a remark).

tse’a [??.??a] (Vtr) see (physical sense). ? Oel tsìme’a tsenget a … "I didn't see (the place), where …" ([119]).

tseltsul ['??l.?ul] (N) whitewater rapids. ? (countable, but only rarely). (Na'viteri 2012-7-5)

tseng [???] (or) tsenge [????.?] (N) place. ? Oel tsìme’a tsenget [tsenge-t] (or) tsengit [tseng-it] a … "I didn't see (the place), where …" ([120]).

tsengpe [????.p?] (Q) where? (alternative form: peseng).

tseo [???.o] (N) art. ? "tseo = art"; "reltseotu = artist" ([121]).

tsewtx [??wt?] (Adj) dirty.

tsìk [??k] (Adv) suddenly, without warning. ? (Na'viteri 2012-1-9)

tsim [?im] (N) source.

tsìng [???] (Num) four. ? (Numerals).

tsìpxì [??.?p??] (N) one-fourth. ? (Naviteri).

tsìsyì [???.sj?] (Vin) whisper. ? Rutxe pivlltxe nìwok nì’it, oel ngati stum ke stängawm krra nga fìfya tserìsyì! "Please speak up a bit, I can barely hear you when you’re whispering like this!" (Na'viteri 2011-9-24).

tsìve [???.v?] (Adj) fourth. ? (Ordinal number).

tsìvol [???.vol] (Num) (octal:) 40 (= decimal: 32). ? (Numerals).

tsko [?ko] (N) bow (weapon).

  1. tsko swizaw [?ko swi.?zaw] (N) bow and arrow.

tskxaytsyìp [??k’aj.?j?p] (N) hail.  ? (Na'viteri 2011-4-1)).

tskxe [?k??] (N) rock, stone. ? Hetuwongìl awngeyä swotut ska’a, fte kllkivulat keruseya tskxet "The aliens destroy our sacred place to dig up dead rock" ([122]).

tskxepay [??k??.paj] (N) ice. ? (Na'viteri 2011-4-1)).

tskxekeng [??k??.k??] (N) training, exercise.

tslam [?lam] (Vtr) understand. ? Tslolam srak? "Did you get it?" (Reflexives).

tsleng [?l??] (Adj) false.

tsmìm [?m?m] (N) animal track. ? Nari si! Äo fìutral lu tsmìm ’angtsìkä! "Watch out! There’s a hammerhead track under this tree!" (Na'viteri 2011-9-4).

tsmuk [?muk] (or) tsmuktu [??muk.tu] (N) sibling.

tsmukan [??mu.kan] (N) brother.

tsmuke [??mu.k?] (N) sister.

tsnì [?n?] (Conj) that (introducing clauses after certain verbs).

tsngal [??al] (N) cup.

tsngan [??an] (N) meat.

tsngawpay ['??aw.paj] (N) tears. ? (Na'viteri 2012-1-22)

tsngawpayvi ['??aw.paj.vi] (N) teardrop. ? (Na'viteri 2012-1-22)

tsngawvìk [???aw.v?k] (Vin) cry, weep.

tsong [?o?] (N) valley. ? Awnga tsongne kivä fte stivarsìm teylut. "Let’s go to the valley to gather beetle larvae." (Na'viteri 2012-3-28)

tsongtsyìp ['?o?.?j?p] (N) dimple. ? Indicates a small indentation in a person’s body. Prrnen lrrtok si a krr, srer mesongtsyìp ahona. "When the baby smiles, two adorable dimples appear." (Na'viteri 2012-3-28)

tso [??o.p?] (N) lung.

tspang [?pa?] (Vtr) kill.

tsranten [???an.t?n] (Vin) matter, be of import(ance). ? ke tsranten [it doesn't matter] (Why is).

tsray [??aj] (N) village.

tsre’i [????.?i] (Vtr) throw.

tstal [?tal] (N) knife.

tstew [?t?w] (Adj) brave.

tstu [?tu] (Adj) closed, shut. ? Of the sky, completely overcast, covered with clouds (Na'viteri 2011-05-05).

tstu si [?tu si] (Vin) close.

tstunwi [??tun.wi] (Adj) kind, thoughtful, considerate.  ? Tstunwi "(it's) kind (of you to say)," and idiom for responding to a compliment (Na’viteri).

tstxo [?t?o] (N) name. ? "tstxo = name"; about "What's your name?"/"My name is …" see syaw (RaN).

tstxolì’u [??t?o.l?.?u] (N) noun.

tsu’o ['?u.?o] (N) ability. ? Tìrusolìri ke lu poru kea tsu’o kaw’it. "As for singing, he has no ability whatsoever." Pori wemtswo fratsamsiyur rolo’a nìtxan. "His ability to fight greatly impressed all the warriors." Kxari tstutswo tsranten krra ke lu kea säfpìl lesar. "When one has no useful thoughts, the ability to close one’s mouth is important." (Na'viteri 2012-3-31)

tsuksìm [??uk.s?m] (N) chin.

tsul [?ul.?fæ] (N) mastery. ? Ngaru tsulfä "to you the mastery," said in a situation where the someone praising you is better at the activity you’re being praised for than you are yourself (Na’viteri).

tsul si [?ul.?fæ si] (Vin) master.

tsultu [?ul.?fæ.tu] (N) master of an art, craft, or skill; expert.

tsun [?un] (Vin + subjunctive) be able, can. ? Tsun oe ngahu nìNa’vi pivängkxo a fì’u oeru prrte’ lu "It’s a pleasure to be able to chat with you in Na’vi" (TO); fmawn a tsun oe ayngaru tivìng "news to give you [= news, which I can give you]" (AMFP); Oe tsun kivä "I can go" (CwT).

tsunslu [??un.slu] (Vin) may, be possible.

tsurokx [?u.??ok?] (V) rest.

tswa’ [?wa?] (V) forget. ? (EDM).

tswayon [??waj.on] (Vin) fly.

tswin [?win] (N) queue (the Na’vi "ponytail").

tsyafe [??ja.f?] (Adj) mild, moderate, comfortable.

tsyal [?jal] (N) wing. ? mesyalhu a ikran "an ikran with two wings" ([123] Feb 18).

tsyär [?jæ?] (Vtr) reject. ? Ngal lumpe oeyä stxenut tsyolängär? "Why did you reject my offer?" Ngal pelun faystxenut frakrr tsyär? "Why do you always reject these offers?" Nga pelun frakrr tsyär? "Why do you always reject everything (or: such things)?" (Na'viteri 2011-9-4, Na'viteri 2012-3-28).

tsyìl [?j?l] (Vtr) climb, scale. ? Tsyìl Iknimayat ulte tsaheyl si ikranhu a fì’u lu tìfmetok a zene frataronyu a’ewan emziva’u. "Scaling Iknimaya and bonding with a banshee is a test that every young hunter must pass." (Na'viteri 2012-1-22)

tsyo [?jo] (N) flour.

tsyokx [?jok?] (N) hand.

tsyosyu [??jo.sju] (N) food made from flour. ? (EDM).

U [u]

uk [uk] (N) shadow.

ukxo [u.?k?o] (Adj) dry.

ulte [?ul.t?] (Conj) and (to connect sentences; in contrast to ? sì) ? Kìyevame ulte Eywa ngahu "See you again, and may Eywa be with you" (FL); Oel ayngati kameie, ma oeyä eylan, ulte ayngaru seiyi irayo "I see you, my friends, and I thank you" (AMFP).

ultxa [ul.?t?a] (N) meeting.

ultxa si (hu) [ul.?t?a si hu] (Vin) meet (with someone). ? The “intentional” meet. Oe pohu ultxa soli "I met with him." Vola taronyu mì na’rìng ultxa soli. "Eight hunters met (together) in the forest." Without hu, the understanding is that the subjects met with each other or as a group. (Na'viteri 2012-3-31)

ultxarun [ul.?t?a.?un] (Vtr) meet by chance, encounter. ? (Na'viteri 2012-3-31)

ultxatu [ul.?t?a.tu] (N) meeting participant. ? (Na'viteri 2011-12-31).

um [um] (Adj) loose. ? Fìraspu’ ’ekxin lu nìhawng. Ke tsun oe yivemstokx. "These leggings are too tight. I can’t wear them." (Na'viteri 2012-7-5)

unil [?u.nil] (N) dream.

Uniltaron [?u.nil.?ta.?on] (N) Dream Hunt (Na’vi culture). ? fo a Uniltìrantokxit (…) zamolunge awngar "those who have brought us 'Avatar'" (AMFP).

uniltìrantokx [u.nil.t?.??an.tok?] (N) avatar (lit.: dreamwalker body). ? fo a Uniltìrantokxit (…) zamolunge awngar "those who have brought us 'Avatar'" (AMFP).

Uniltìranyu [unil.t?.??an.ju] (N) dreamwalker.

uo [?u.o] (Adp–) behind.

‹us› [u.s] (Inf pre-1) turns the verb into an active participle, which is connected with it's belonging noun using a- | -a. ? Palulukan atusaron lu lehrrap "A hunting thanator is dangerous" ([124]).

utral [?ut.?al] (N) tree.

  1. Utral Aymokriyä [?ut.?al aj.?mok.?i.jæ] (N) Tree of Voices. ? (Lemondrop).

utraltsyìp [?ut.?al.?j?p] (N) bush.

-ur [u?] (M) dative suffix (in case of the word ending on a consonant) [allomorphs: -ur, -r ]. ? Ayeylanur oeyä sì eylanur lì’fyayä leNa’vi nìwotx "To all my friends and friends of the Na’vi language" (AMFP).

uran [?u.?an] (N) boat. ? (Na'viteri 2011-07-24).

uvan [u.?van] (N) game. ? (MND).

uvan si [u.?van si] (Vin) play. ? (MND).

‹uy› [u.j] (Inf 2) to indicate formal speech ‹form›. ? tayaruyon "will hunt (and the speaker wants to say it in a formal way)" ([125]).

V [v]

var [va?] (Vin) to persist in a state, to continue to perform an action. ? Pol trram yerikit tarmaron; fìtrr var "yesterday he was hunting hexapede; today he still is." With modal syntax, "continue to, keep on", var nivume ko! "let's keep learning!" (Continuative).

vawm [vawm] (Adj) dark.

vay [vaj] (Adp–) up to (several senses). ? vay set "up to now" (AMFP); "He counted up to 35", "Follow the river up to the land of destruction" ([126] Feb 01).

vaykrr [vaj.?kr??] (Conj) until. ? "vaykrr (Conj): until" (Extracts from various emails Feb 01).

vä’ [væ?] (Adj) unpleasant to the senses.

ve’ [v??.?k?] (Vtr) hate.

velek ['v?.l?k] (Vin 12) give up, surrender, concede defeat. ? Tì’i’ari tsamä zene Sawtute vivelek talun tìtxur Eywayä. "At the end of the war, the Sky People had to give up due to the power of Eywa." (Na'viteri 2012-3-28)

venu [?v?.nu] (N) foot.

venzek [?v?n.z?k] (N) toe.

vewng [v?w?] (Vtr) look after, take care of.  ? Oel vewng frrnenit "I look after the infants." Oel vewng futa ayeveng nivume teri ayewll na’rìngä "I see to it that the children learn about the plants of the forest" (Naviteri).

vey [v?j] (N) food of animal origin; flesh. ? (EDM).

vin [vin] (Vtr) ask for, request. ? Pol volin mipa tskalepit "He asked for a new crossbow" (Na'viteri 2011-8-31).

vingkap [?vi?.kap] (Vtr) occur to one, strike one, pop into one’s mind. ? Vìmingkap oeti fula poe ke li ke poltxe san oe zasya’u "It just occurred to me that she hasn’t yet said she’s coming" (Na'viteri 2011-9-4).

vi [vi.??æ] (V) spread, proliferate.

vll [vl??] (Vin, Vtr) indicate, point at. ? Vll eykyu nefä fte pongu fäkivä. "The leader signals the party to ascend by pointing upwards." (Na'viteri 2012-6-19)

vofu [vo.?fu] (Num) (octal:) 16 (= decimal: 14). ? (Numerals).

vohin [vo.?hin] (Num) (octal:) 17 (= decimal: 15). ? (Numerals).

vol [vol] (Num) (octal:) 10 (= decimal: 8). ? (Numerals).

  1. vo+ [vo] (or) vol+ [vol] (M+) morpheme in numerals: before zam meaning "(octal) ten times …", otherwise meaning "(octal) ten and …". ? volaw, vomun, vopey, vosìng … [(octal) 11, 12, 13, 14, …], vozam, mevozam, pxevozam, … [(octal) 1000, 2000, 3000] (Numerals).

volaw [vol.?aw] (Num) (octal:) 11 (= decimal: 9). ? (Numerals).

volve [?vol.v?] (Adj) eighth. ? (Ordinal number).

vomun [vo.?mun] (Num) (octal:) 12 (= decimal: 10). ? (Numerals).

vopxì [vo.?p??] (N) one-eighth. ? (Naviteri).

vospxì [vo.?p??] (N) month. ? (Na'viteri 2011-4-5).

vospxìam [vo.p??.?am] (N) last month. ? (Na'viteri 2011-4-5).


vospxìay [vo.p??.?aj] (N) next month. ? (Na'viteri 2011-4-5).

vozam [vo.zam] (Num) (octal:) 1000 (= decimal: 512). ? (Numerals).

vrrìn [?vr??.?n] (Vin) be busy (negative sense), be tired out and overwhelmed by an activity.  ? tìkangkemìri varmrrìn oe nìwotx "I was completely overwhelmed at work" (Naviteri).

vrrtep [?vr??.t?p] (N) demon. ? Fayvrrtep fìtsenge lu kxanì "These demons are forbidden here" (TO).

vul [vul] (N) branch (of a tree).

vur [vu?] (N) story.

vurvi [?vu?.vi] (N) summary, synopsis. ? (EDM).

W [w]

walak [?wa.lak] (Adj) energetic, active. ? Tìtusaronìri txo new fko slivu tsulfätu, zene smarto livu walak "If you want to become a master hunter, you have to be more active than your prey" (Na'viteri 2011-10-31).

wan [wan] Vtr hide. ? pol sä’oti wolan äo ayrìk, "he hid his tool under the leaves" (Naviteri).

wawe [wa.?w?] (N) meaning, importance, significance. ? ngari wawe fìvurä lu ’upe? "what is the significance of this story to you?" (Na'viteri 2011-05-25).

way [waj] (N) song.

waytelem [?waj.t?.l?m] (N) songcord.

[wæ] (Adp+) against (as in: fight against).

te [wæ.?t?] (Vtr) argue, dispute. ? Sawtute lu ayvrrtep nìwotx a säfpìlit oel wäte "I dispute the idea that the Skypeople are all demons" (Na'viteri 2011-01-31).

tu [?wæ.tu] (N) opponent. ? (Na'viteri 2011-07-24).

wätx [wæt?] (Vtr) be bad at.

wem [w?m] (Vin) fight. ? ayoe ke wasyem "we will not fight" (Intentional Future).

wempongu [?w?m.po.?u] (N) squad, military clan, battle party.

wew [w?w] (Adj) cold.

weyn [w?jn] (V) draw, illustrate.

win [win] (Adj) fast. ? Lu nga win sì txur "You are fast and strong" (ASG, Hunt Song).

win säpi [win sæ.pi] (Vin) hurry.

win si [win si] (Vin) rush something, make somthing fast.

wìntxu [w?n.?t?u] (V) show. ? You wìntxu ‘show’ by means of a säwìntxu ‘a showing, an exhibition’. (Na'viteri 2012-2-29)

wo [wo] (Vtr) reach for. ? Ngal new a tsa’ut rä’ä wivo, ma ’evi. Vivin. "Don’t reach for what you want, child. Ask for it." (Na'viteri 2012-1-9)

wok [wok] (Adj) loud.

wotx [wot?] (N) totality, whole.

wou [?wo.u] (Vin) be amazing, be fascinating (slang).  ? WOU Neytiri! "Neytiri is awesome!" Oeru woeiu lì’fya leNa’vi "I’m just fascinated by the Na’vi language" (TH).

wrrpa [?wr??.pa] (N) outside; (Adv) outside.

wur [wu?] (Adj) cool, a bit chilly.

wutso [?wu.?o] (N) dinner, served meal.

Y [j]

ya [ja] (N) air. ? (MND).

yafkeyk [?ja.fk?jk] (N) weather. ? yafkeyk za'u fyape? "how's the weather?" (Na'viteri 2011-4-1).

yapay [?ja.paj] (N) mist, fog, steam.

yawntu [?jawn.tu] (or) yawnetu [?jaw.n?.tu] (N) loved one.

yawne [?jaw.n?] (Adj) beloved. ? "yawne means 'beloved'" ([127] Jan 20); Nga yawne lu oer "I love you" ([128] Jan 21).

yawo [ja.'wo] (Vin 22) take off, launch. ? Fwa yawo ftu kllte to fwa tswayon ftu ’awkx lu ngäzìk. "Taking off from the ground is harder than flying off a cliff." ’Uol ikranit txopu sleykolatsu, taluna po tsìk yawo. "Something must have frightened the banshee, because it suddenly took to the air." (Na'viteri 2012-1-9)

yayayr [ja.?jaj?] (N) confusion.  ? Sawtuteyä hemìri lu awngaru yayayr "the Skypeople’s actions confuse us" (Na'viteri 2011-1-31).

yayo [?ja.jo] (N) bird.

yaymak [?jaj.mak] (Adj) foolish, ignorant.

-yä [jæ] (M) genitive suffix (in case of the word ending on a vowel) [allomorph: ]. ? Tompayä kato, tsawkeyä kato … "The rhythm of rain and sun …" (ASG, Weaving Song); eylanur lì’fyayä leNa’vi "to [all] friends of the Na’vi language" (AMFP); Utral Aymokriyä "Tree of Voices" (Lemondrop).

yän [jæn] (Vtr) fasten, tie down.

ye [j?] (Adj) satisfied, content; satiated, “full”. ? Tsaria fkol pole’un futa Loak slu taronyu, sempul ’efu ye "Father is content that it’s been decided Loak will be a hunter" (Na'viteri 2011-4-5).

ye’krr [?j??.kr??] (Adv) early.

ye’rìn [?j??.??n] (Adv) soon. ? Sìlpey oe, layu oeru ye’rìn sìltsana fmawn "I hope, I will soon have good news" (AMFP).

yehakx [?j?.hak?] (Adj) satisfied from hunger by food, “full stomach”. ? Srake yehakx? "Did you get enough to eat?" (Na'viteri 2011-4-5).

yem [j?m] (Vtr) put, place.

yemfpay [j?m.?fpaj] (N) dipping, immersion (into a liquid).

yemfpay si [j?m.?fpaj si] (Vin) dip (into a liquid).

yemstokx [?j?m.stok?] (Vtr) put on (clothing), don. ? From yem "put" + sìn "on, onto" + tokx "body". Fìrewon ngal lumpe kea hawre’it ke yolemstokx? "Why didn’t you put on a hat this morning?" (Na'viteri 2011-8-3).

yerik [?j?.?ik] (N) yerik, hexapede (zool.) [Sexcruscervus caeruleus (blue six-legged deer); up to 1.5 meters long, 2 meters in height; one of the animals hunted by the Na’vi (ASG, p. 84–86)]. ? "If Neytiri hunted a hexapede (yerik), you would say Neytiril yerikit tolaron [= Neytiri hunted a hexapede]" (MSNBC).

yeväng [?j?.væ?] (Adj) satisfied from thirst by drink, feeling quenched/slaked. ? Srekrr ’amefu väng, set yeväng "Before, I was thirsty; now my thirst has been quenched" (Na'viteri 2011-4-5).

yey [j?j] (Adj) straight.

yìm [j?m] (Vtr) bind.

yll [jl??] (Adj) communal. ? (Na'viteri 2012-1-22)

yo [jo] (N) surface. ? (Na'viteri 2012-3-28)

yo’ [jo?] (Vin) be perfect, flawless. ?  Tìhawl lesngä’i lu tìkangkemvi skxawngä, slä pum alu fì’u yo’ nì’aw. "The original plan was the work of an idiot, but this one is just perfect." A: Ultxa sivi oeng sìn ramtsyìp txon’ongay. "Let’s meet on the hill tomorrow at nightfall." B: Yeio’! Tsakrrvay ko! "Perfect! See you then." Riniri nikre yängo’ nìtut. "Rini’s hair is always perfect. (I “hate” her. OR: I wish mine were perfect too!)" Fìstxelit fol txerula fpi olo’eyktan. Zene yivo’ luke kxeyeyo kaw’it. "They’re constructing this gift for the chief. It must be perfect without a single flaw." (Na'viteri 2012-1-9)

yol [jol] (Adj) short (time).

yom [jom] (Vtr) eat. ? Oe new yivom teylut. "I want to eat teylu." Oel yerom set teylut. "I’m eating beetle larvae now." Oe yerom set. "I’m eating now." Note the syntax here: lok ‘approach’ is transitive, so pol is agentive and txewti is patientive. Teylu a oel yerom lu ftxìlor "The teylu I’m eating is delicious" Lit.: ‘The teylu that [I’m eating (it)] is delicious.’ In both Na’vi and English, you must delete the “it” in the bracketed (relative) clause. ([129] Dec 31 & Jan 20, Na'viteri 2012-3-28)

yom·tìng [?jom.t??] (Vin + dative) feed. ? [ftxey] awpot [< ’awpot?] a Na’viru yomtìyìng "[choose] one, who will feed the People" (ASG, Hunt Song); "yomtìng, a compound: yom 'eat' + tìng 'give'", "the verb is thought of intransitively" ([130] Dec 31).

yora’ [jo.??a?] (Vtr) win. ? yìmora’ Tsu’teyìl uvanit "Tsu'tey just won the game" (Na'viteri 2011-05-25).

yora’tu [jo.??a?.tu] (N) winner. ? Frauvanìri lu yora'tu, lu snaytu "For every game, there's a winner and a loser" (Na'viteri 2011-12-31).

yrrap ['j???.ap] (N) storm. ? Frapo ne mìfa! Lerok yrrap apxa! "Everybody inside! A big storm is approaching!" (Na'viteri 2012-7-5)

-yu [ju] (M) ending to turn a verb into the doer (agent); see also -tu. ? ([131]); taronyu [hunter].

yuey ['ju.?j] (Adj) beautiful (inner beauty). ? Only for people.. Lu poe lor, lu yuey nìteng. "She’s beautiful on the outside and the inside." (Na'viteri 2012-3-28)

yur [ju?] (Vtr) wash. ? oe yäpur "I wash myself" (Reflexives).

Z [z]

za’ärìp [za.??æ.??p] (Vtr) pull.

za’u [?za.?u] (Vin) come. ? [ayoe] zera’u "We are coming" (ASG, Hunt Song); Nga za’u fìtseng pxìm srak? "Do you come here often?" (Lemondrop).

zam [zam] (Num) (octal:) 100 (= decimal: 64). ? (Numerals).

zamunge [za.?mu.??] (Vtr) bring. ? fo a Uniltìrantokxit (…) zamolunge awngar "those, who have brought aus 'Avatar'" (AMFP); paye’un sweya fya’ot a zamivunge oel ayngar … "I will decide the best way to bring you …" (AMFP).

zapxì [za.?p??] (N) front (front part or section).

zare [za.'???] (N) forehead, brow. ? from zapxì + re’o. (Na'viteri 2012-3-28)

zasrìn [za.'s??n] (Vtr 22) borrow. ? Sneyä masatit pol käsrolìn oer. "He lent me his breastplate." Srake tsun oe zasrivìn ngeyä tsngalit? "Can I borrow your cup?" (Na'viteri 2012-1-22)

zazam [za.zam] (Num) (octal:) 10,000 (= decimal: 4096). ? (Numerals).

zawng [zaw?] (Vin) scream.

zek [?z?k.wæ] (N) finger. ? (Some Conjunctions and Adverbs).

zene [?z?.n?] (Vin + subjunctive) must. ? livu win sì txur oe zene "I must be fast and strong" (ASG, Hunt Song); zene oe ’awsiteng tìkangkem sivi fohu … "I must work together with those …" (AMFP); Oe zene kivä "I must go" (CwT). The negation of this verb means "it is not obligatory", as in nga ke zene kivä "you don't have to go" (Zenke); see also zenke.

zenke [?z??.k?] (Vin) must not. ? nga zenke kivä! "you must not go!" (Zenke). Note anomalous spelling. See also zene.

zerok [?z?.?ok] (V) remember. ? (EDM).

zeswa ['z?.swa] (N) grass. ? Palukanit tsole’a, yerik lopx hifwo kxamlä zeswa. "Spotting a thanator, the hexapede panicked and escaped through the grass." (Na'viteri 2012-7-5)

zeswavi ['z?.swa.vi] (N) blade of grass. (Na'viteri 2012-7-5)

zey [z?j] (Adj) special, distinct. ? Kelutral lu fneutral azey. "Hometree is a special kind of tree." (Na'viteri 2012-6-19)

zize’ [zi.?z??] (N) hellfire wasp.

ma’uyu [z?.?ma.?u.ju] (N) newcomer, someone who has just arrived on the scene. ? Lam oer fwa tsazìma’uyul ke fnan tìtusaronit "It seems to me that that newcomer isn’t any good at hunting" (Na'viteri 2011-9-4).

sìkrr [?z?.s?.kr??] (N) season.

sìt [?z?.s?t] (N) year. ? ayzìsìtä kato "the rhyhtm of the years" (ASG, Weaving Song); Mipa Zìsìt Lefpom Ngaru! "Happy New Year to You!" ([132] Dec 31).

zo [zo] (Vin) be well, be intact, be as it should be, work correctly or as nature intended.

  1. zeyko [z?j.?ko] (Vtr) heal, fix. ? [zeyk??o].

zong [zo?] (V) save, defend.

zongtseng [?zo?.???] (N) safe place, refuge.

zoplo [zop.?lo] (N) offense, insult.

zoslu [?zo.slu] (Vin) heal, become well, get fixed. ? [zosl??u].

zup [zup] (Vin) fall. ? ke zasyup lì'Ona ne kxutu a mìfa fu a wrrpa "the l'Ona will not perish to the enemy within or the enemy without" (Intentional Future Details). It is also used to describe precipitation, zerup tompa "it's raining" (Na'viteri 2011-4-1).

zusawkrr [zu.?saw.kr??] (N) future time, future; (Adv) in the future. ? aylari zusawkrr ’ayeyng "the others (I) will answer in the future" (Numerals).